Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Caloric restriction (CR), resveratrol, and ischemic preconditioning (IPC) have been shown to promote protection against ischemic injury in the heart and brain, as well as in other tissues. The activity of sirtuins, which are enzymes that modulate diverse biologic processes, seems to be vital in the ability of these therapeutic modalities to prevent against cellular dysfunction and death. The protective mechanisms of the yeast Sir2 and the mammalian homolog sirtuin 1 have been extensively studied, but the involvement of other sirtuins in ischemic protection is not yet clear. We examine the roles of mammalian sirtuins in modulating protective pathways against oxidative stress, energy depletion, excitotoxicity, inflammation, DNA damage, and apoptosis. Although many of these sirtuins have not been directly implicated in ischemic protection, they may have unique roles in enhancing function and preventing against stress-mediated cellular damage and death. This review will include in-depth analyses of the roles of CR, resveratrol, and IPC in activating sirtuins and in mediating protection against ischemic damage in the heart and brain.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 12 January 2011; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2010.229.
Department of Neurology, Cerebral Vascular Disease Research Center, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Disturbances of extracellular matrix homeostasis are associated with a number of pathological conditions. The ability of extracellular matrix to provide contextual information and hence control the in...
Ghrelin is an orexigenic gastric peptide hormone secreted when caloric intake is limited. Ghrelin also regulates blood glucose, as emphasized by the hypoglycemia that is induced by caloric restriction...
Sirtuins (SIRTs) are NAD(+)-dependent enzymes that catalyze deacylation of protein lysine residues. In mammals, seven sirtuins have been identified, SIRT1-7. SIRT3-5 are mainly or exclusively localize...
Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound present in over 70 different plant-derived products, including red wine, grapes, berries, chocolate and peanuts. ...
To investigate the effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength-endurance exercise (IASE) and caloric restriction (CR) on body composition, glycaemic and lipid profile and inflammatory ...
The purpose of this study is to determine if an increased protein intake can attenuate the suppression of metabolic and anabolic hormones during caloric restriction
Weight loss induced by caloric restriction alone (CR) and by exercise alone (EX) result in similar effects on blood glucose and insulin. The purpose of this study is to assess the hypothes...
This study is being conducted to decrease the rate of surgical wound complications. The investigators are studying the effects that caloric restriction has on decreasing the rate of surgic...
Research has shown that fat stored within muscles affects the muscle's sensitivity to insulin and ability to handle blood glucose. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of sh...
Methods study to characterize early indicators of weight loss in people.
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
A homologous family of regulatory enzymes that are structurally related to the protein silent mating type information regulator 2 (Sir2) found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sirtuins contain a central catalytic core region which binds NAD. Several of the sirtuins utilize NAD to deacetylate proteins such as HISTONES and are categorized as GROUP III HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Several other sirtuin members utilize NAD to transfer ADP-RIBOSE to proteins and are categorized as MONO ADP-RIBOSE TRANSFERASES, while a third group of sirtuins appears to have both deacetylase and ADP ribose transferase activities.
The application of repeated, brief periods of vascular occlusion at the onset of REPERFUSION to reduce REPERFUSION INJURY that follows a prolonged ischemic event. The techniques are similar to ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING but the time of application is after the ischemic event instead of before.
A technique to generate restriction maps from single large DNA molecules by spreading the DNA onto a glass surface, digesting with DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES, staining with FLUORESCENT DYES, and visualizing the DNA cleavage sites by FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY.
Systems consisting of two enzymes, a modification methylase and a restriction endonuclease. They are closely related in their specificity and protect the DNA of a given bacterial species. The methylase adds methyl groups to adenine or cytosine residues in the same target sequence that constitutes the restriction enzyme binding site. The methylation renders the target site resistant to restriction, thereby protecting DNA against cleavage.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) Blood Cardiovascular Dialysis Hypertension Stent Stroke Vascular Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes all the diseases of the heart and circulation including coronary heart disease (angina...
Of all the types of Dementia, Alzheimer's disease is the most common, affecting around 465,000 people in the UK. Neurons in the brain die, becuase 'plaques' and 'tangles' (mis-folded proteins) form in the brain. People with Al...
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Erectile Dysfunction Urology Urology is the branch of medicine concerned with the urinary tract and diseases that affect it. Examples include urethritis, urethrostenosis and incontinence. Urology is a su...