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Caloric restriction (CR), resveratrol, and ischemic preconditioning (IPC) have been shown to promote protection against ischemic injury in the heart and brain, as well as in other tissues. The activity of sirtuins, which are enzymes that modulate diverse biologic processes, seems to be vital in the ability of these therapeutic modalities to prevent against cellular dysfunction and death. The protective mechanisms of the yeast Sir2 and the mammalian homolog sirtuin 1 have been extensively studied, but the involvement of other sirtuins in ischemic protection is not yet clear. We examine the roles of mammalian sirtuins in modulating protective pathways against oxidative stress, energy depletion, excitotoxicity, inflammation, DNA damage, and apoptosis. Although many of these sirtuins have not been directly implicated in ischemic protection, they may have unique roles in enhancing function and preventing against stress-mediated cellular damage and death. This review will include in-depth analyses of the roles of CR, resveratrol, and IPC in activating sirtuins and in mediating protection against ischemic damage in the heart and brain.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 12 January 2011; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2010.229.
Department of Neurology, Cerebral Vascular Disease Research Center, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.
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A homologous family of regulatory enzymes that are structurally related to the protein silent mating type information regulator 2 (Sir2) found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sirtuins contain a central catalytic core region which binds NAD. Several of the sirtuins utilize NAD to deacetylate proteins such as HISTONES and are categorized as GROUP III HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Several other sirtuin members utilize NAD to transfer ADP-RIBOSE to proteins and are categorized as MONO ADP-RIBOSE TRANSFERASES, while a third group of sirtuins appears to have both deacetylase and ADP ribose transferase activities.
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Systems consisting of two enzymes, a modification methylase and a restriction endonuclease. They are closely related in their specificity and protect the DNA of a given bacterial species. The methylase adds methyl groups to adenine or cytosine residues in the same target sequence that constitutes the restriction enzyme binding site. The methylation renders the target site resistant to restriction, thereby protecting DNA against cleavage.
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