Pathways for ischemic cytoprotection: Role of sirtuins in caloric restriction, resveratrol, and ischemic preconditioning.
Summary of "Pathways for ischemic cytoprotection: Role of sirtuins in caloric restriction, resveratrol, and ischemic preconditioning."
Caloric restriction (CR), resveratrol, and ischemic preconditioning (IPC) have been shown to promote protection against ischemic injury in the heart and brain, as well as in other tissues. The activity of sirtuins, which are enzymes that modulate diverse biologic processes, seems to be vital in the ability of these therapeutic modalities to prevent against cellular dysfunction and death. The protective mechanisms of the yeast Sir2 and the mammalian homolog sirtuin 1 have been extensively studied, but the involvement of other sirtuins in ischemic protection is not yet clear. We examine the roles of mammalian sirtuins in modulating protective pathways against oxidative stress, energy depletion, excitotoxicity, inflammation, DNA damage, and apoptosis. Although many of these sirtuins have not been directly implicated in ischemic protection, they may have unique roles in enhancing function and preventing against stress-mediated cellular damage and death. This review will include in-depth analyses of the roles of CR, resveratrol, and IPC in activating sirtuins and in mediating protection against ischemic damage in the heart and brain.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 12 January 2011; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2010.229.
Department of Neurology, Cerebral Vascular Disease Research Center, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21224864
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jcbfm.2010.229
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
A homologous family of regulatory enzymes that are structurally related to the protein silent mating type information regulator 2 (Sir2) found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sirtuins contain a central catalytic core region which binds NAD. Several of the sirtuins utilize NAD to deacetylate proteins such as HISTONES and are categorized as GROUP III HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Several other sirtuin members utilize NAD to transfer ADP-RIBOSE to proteins and are categorized as MONO ADP-RIBOSE TRANSFERASES, while a third group of sirtuins appears to have both deacetylase and ADP ribose transferase activities.
The application of repeated, brief periods of vascular occlusion at the onset of REPERFUSION to reduce REPERFUSION INJURY that follows a prolonged ischemic event. The techniques are similar to ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING but the time of application is after the ischemic event instead of before.
Optical Restriction Mapping
A technique to generate restriction maps from single large DNA molecules by spreading the DNA onto a glass surface, digesting with DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES, staining with FLUORESCENT DYES, and visualizing the DNA cleavage sites by FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY.
Dna Restriction-modification Enzymes
Systems consisting of two enzymes, a modification methylase and a restriction endonuclease. They are closely related in their specificity and protect the DNA of a given bacterial species. The methylase adds methyl groups to adenine or cytosine residues in the same target sequence that constitutes the restriction enzyme binding site. The methylation renders the target site resistant to restriction, thereby protecting DNA against cleavage.
Although the increased lifespan of our populations illustrates the success of modern medicine, the risk of developing many diseases increases exponentially with old age. Caloric restriction is known t...
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk for development of both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in humans. Because experimental data and clinical experie...
The natural phytocompound resveratrol has been considered for many years a potential anticancer drug, but recently it has come to the attention of neuroscientist too, as it displays neuroprotective ac...
We defined whether resveratrol administration during the acute phase of ischemic stroke reduces brain injury in mice. Infarct volumes were decreased significantly in both sexes with different doses of...
Caloric restriction is an established intervention, of which anti-aging effects are scientifically proven. It has pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system: vascular protection, improvement of...
Weight loss induced by caloric restriction alone (CR) and by exercise alone (EX) result in similar effects on blood glucose and insulin. The purpose of this study is to assess the hypothes...
Research has shown that fat stored within muscles affects the muscle's sensitivity to insulin and ability to handle blood glucose. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of sh...
Methods study to characterize early indicators of weight loss in people.
The central aim of this study is to improve understanding of how metabolic pathways that contribute to adiposity also amplify risks of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular disease...
The researchers will investigate whether caloric restriction or dietary supplementation could provide positive effects on general brain functions in healthy elderly people.