Pathways for ischemic cytoprotection: Role of sirtuins in caloric restriction, resveratrol, and ischemic preconditioning.

18:50 EDT 20th October 2014 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Pathways for ischemic cytoprotection: Role of sirtuins in caloric restriction, resveratrol, and ischemic preconditioning."

Caloric restriction (CR), resveratrol, and ischemic preconditioning (IPC) have been shown to promote protection against ischemic injury in the heart and brain, as well as in other tissues. The activity of sirtuins, which are enzymes that modulate diverse biologic processes, seems to be vital in the ability of these therapeutic modalities to prevent against cellular dysfunction and death. The protective mechanisms of the yeast Sir2 and the mammalian homolog sirtuin 1 have been extensively studied, but the involvement of other sirtuins in ischemic protection is not yet clear. We examine the roles of mammalian sirtuins in modulating protective pathways against oxidative stress, energy depletion, excitotoxicity, inflammation, DNA damage, and apoptosis. Although many of these sirtuins have not been directly implicated in ischemic protection, they may have unique roles in enhancing function and preventing against stress-mediated cellular damage and death. This review will include in-depth analyses of the roles of CR, resveratrol, and IPC in activating sirtuins and in mediating protection against ischemic damage in the heart and brain.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 12 January 2011; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2010.229.

Affiliation

Department of Neurology, Cerebral Vascular Disease Research Center, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabol
ISSN: 1559-7016
Pages:

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

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A homologous family of regulatory enzymes that are structurally related to the protein silent mating type information regulator 2 (Sir2) found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sirtuins contain a central catalytic core region which binds NAD. Several of the sirtuins utilize NAD to deacetylate proteins such as HISTONES and are categorized as GROUP III HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Several other sirtuin members utilize NAD to transfer ADP-RIBOSE to proteins and are categorized as MONO ADP-RIBOSE TRANSFERASES, while a third group of sirtuins appears to have both deacetylase and ADP ribose transferase activities.

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