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Citation Kaul R, Cohen CR, Chege D, Yi TJ, Tharao W, McKinnon LR, Remis R, Anzala O, Kimani J. Biological factors that may contribute to regional and racial disparities in HIV prevalence. Am J Reprod Immunol 2011 Despite tremendous regional and subregional disparities in HIV prevalence around the world, epidemiology consistently demonstrates that black communities have been disproportionately affected by the pandemic. There are many reasons for this, and a narrow focus on socio-behavioural causes may be seen as laying blame on affected communities or individuals. HIV sexual transmission is very inefficient, and a number of biological factors are critical in determining whether an unprotected sexual exposure to HIV results in productive infection. This review will focus on ways in which biology, rather than behaviour, may contribute to regional and racial differences in HIV epidemic spread. Specific areas of focus are viral factors, host genetics, and the impact of co-infections and host immunology. Considering biological causes for these racial disparities may help to destigmatize the issue and lead to new and more effective strategies for prevention.
Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Cen
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: American journal of reproductive immunology (New York, N.Y. : 1989)
Racial disparities in the clinical outcomes of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) exist. Perceived racial discrimination may contribute to disparities in health.
The aim of this study was to assess whether racial disparities in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mortality in the USA have changed over time.
This study examined neighborhood racial and socioeconomic disparities and the density of food and alcohol establishments. We also examined whether these disparities differed by data source.
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Endogenously-synthesized compounds that may influence biological phenomena or represent quantifiable biomarkers. Biological factors are a variety of extracellular substances that are not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or agents of organic origin, usually obtained by biological methods or assay. They are used especially in diagnosis and treatment of disease (as vaccines or pollen extracts). Biological products are differentiated from BIOLOGICAL FACTORS in that the latter are compounds with biological or physiological activity made by living organisms. (From Webster's 3d ed)
These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.
Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.
Differences in access to or availability of facilities and services
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...
A diagnostic test is any kind of medical test performed to aid in the diagnosis or detection of disease. For example: to diagnose diseases to measure the progress or recovery from disease to confirm that a person is free from disease Clin...