Biological Factors that May Contribute to Regional and Racial Disparities in HIV Prevalence.
Summary of "Biological Factors that May Contribute to Regional and Racial Disparities in HIV Prevalence."
Citation Kaul R, Cohen CR, Chege D, Yi TJ, Tharao W, McKinnon LR, Remis R, Anzala O, Kimani J. Biological factors that may contribute to regional and racial disparities in HIV prevalence. Am J Reprod Immunol 2011 Despite tremendous regional and subregional disparities in HIV prevalence around the world, epidemiology consistently demonstrates that black communities have been disproportionately affected by the pandemic. There are many reasons for this, and a narrow focus on socio-behavioural causes may be seen as laying blame on affected communities or individuals. HIV sexual transmission is very inefficient, and a number of biological factors are critical in determining whether an unprotected sexual exposure to HIV results in productive infection. This review will focus on ways in which biology, rather than behaviour, may contribute to regional and racial differences in HIV epidemic spread. Specific areas of focus are viral factors, host genetics, and the impact of co-infections and host immunology. Considering biological causes for these racial disparities may help to destigmatize the issue and lead to new and more effective strategies for prevention.
Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Cen
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: American journal of reproductive immunology (New York, N.Y. : 1989)
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21223426
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0897.2010.00962.x
The racial/ethnic disparities in DNA methylation patterns indicate that molecular markers may play a role in determining the individual susceptibility to diseases in different ethnic groups. Racial di...
Race, ethnicity, and social class differences in the prevalence and effects of cardiovascular risk factors have been observed in many studies. Understanding the drivers of these differences is critica...
Helicobacter pylori in the United States has been declining in the 1990s albeit less so among blacks and Hispanics. As the socioeconomic status of racial groups has evolved, it remains unclear whether...
Providing equitable and patient-centered care is critical to ensuring high quality of care. Although racial/ethnic disparities in quality are widely reported for nursing facilities, it is unknown whet...
To examine how racial/ethnic disparities of cervical cancer mortality vary geographically and to identify factors contributing to the variation.
Arthritis is a painful, disabling condition that disproportionately affects African Americans. Existing arthritis treatments yield only small to moderate improvements in pain and are not e...
This Western Pennsylvania-based study will (1) improve cardiovascular risk stratification to identify high-risk populations, (2) identify disparities in cardiovascular risk based on race, ...
Black Americans tend to die more often from and have more diseases associated with heart disease than White Americans. The exact cause of this is unknown, but it is likely a combination o...
Over the past 30 years obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States (Ogden et al, 2006). While this epidemic affects all socioeconomic levels, certain racial/ethnic groups...
In response to the Finding Answers: Disparities Research for Change call for proposals by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, we were funded to evaluate the effectiveness of a planned comp...
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that may influence biological phenomena or represent quantifiable biomarkers. Biological factors are a variety of extracellular substances that are not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or agents of organic origin, usually obtained by biological methods or assay. They are used especially in diagnosis and treatment of disease (as vaccines or pollen extracts). Biological products are differentiated from BIOLOGICAL FACTORS in that the latter are compounds with biological or physiological activity made by living organisms. (From Webster's 3d ed)
These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.
Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.
Differences in access to or availability of facilities and services