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Psychotherapists and psychiatrists are often confronted with patients suffering from self-inflicted injuries. A specific form of self-inflicted physical injury is nonsuicidal self-injury. This article aims at giving an overview of the phenomena of self-injury behavior. Extensive literature research was carried out in the databanks Medline and ISI Web of Knowledge and especially, current literature was the main feature of interest. Although there are numerous publications giving a broad overview, however, important aspects have not yet been clarified. The question arises whether self-injury behavior can be regarded as an independent syndrome or if it is, as assumed, a precursor for severe mental disorders.
Universität Bremen, Zentrum für Klinische Psychologie und Rehabilitation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, medizinische Psychologie
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The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
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The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
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