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Plesiomonas shigelloides (a bacterium widely distributed in aquatic ecosystems causing both intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases) shows a host of putative virulence markers, such as hemolysins, cytotoxins, production of exoenzymes associated with pathogenicity, adhesive ability and vacuolation of cell lines in vitro. Technical difficulties in detecting some of these virulence factors together with scantiness of epidemiological information, due to the lack of routine analysis for P. shigelloides as etiological agent of gastroenteritis, lead to sporadic and occasional finding of these bacteria. All this casts doubt on the real virulence potential of P. shigelloides and fuels a debate about assignment of these bacteria to the list of human pathogens. Here we demonstrated the phenotypic diversity and the putative virulence markers by examining serotype biochemical and virulence properties of 60 strains of P. shigelloides isolated from human, animal and environmental samples in different countries, which showed the unpredictable occurrence of the above properties depending on various locations and diverse sources.
Department of Environmental Sciences, Parthenope University of Naples, 80143, Naples, Italy.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Folia microbiologica
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The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.
Exposure of the male parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring.
Medical specialty concerned with environmental factors that may impinge upon human disease, and development of methods for the detection, prevention, and control of environmentally related disease.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
A multifactorial disease of CATTLE resulting from complex interactions between environmental factors, host factors, and pathogens. The environmental factors act as stressors adversely affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM and other host defenses and enhancing transmission of infecting agents.