Endogenous retroviral pathogenesis in lupus.
Summary of "Endogenous retroviral pathogenesis in lupus."
Genetic and environmental factors influence the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are proposed as a molecular link between the human genome and environmental factors, such as viruses, in lupus pathogenesis. RECENT
The HRES-1 human ERV encodes a 28-kD nuclear autoantigen and a 24-kD small GTP-ase, termed HRES-1/Rab4. HRES-1/p28 is a target of cross-reactive antiviral antibodies, whereas HRES-1/Rab4 regulates the surface expression of CD4 via endosome recycling. The tat gene of HIV-1 induces the expression of HRES-1/Rab4, which in turn downregulates expression of CD4 and susceptibility to reinfection by HIV-1. HRES-1/Rab4 is overexpressed in lupus T cells where it correlates with increased recycling of CD4 and CD3 and contributes to downregulation of CD3/TCRzeta via lysosomal degradation. Chilblain lupus has been linked to the deficiency of 3'-5' repair exonuclease Trex1 that metabolizes DNA reverse-transcribed from ERV. Trex1 deficiency or blocked integration of ERV-encoded DNA also promotes lupus in murine models.
ERV proteins may trigger lupus through structural and functional molecular mimicry, whereas the accumulation of ERV-derived nucleic acids stimulates interferon and anti-DNA antibody production in SLE.
Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine and Microbiology and Immunology, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current opinion in rheumatology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20644481
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BOR.0b013e32833c6297
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A form of lupus erythematosus in which the skin may be the only organ involved or in which skin involvement precedes the spread into other body systems. It has been classified into three forms - acute (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC with skin lesions), subacute, and chronic (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, DISCOID).
Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).
Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
A type of lupus erythematosus characterized by deep dermal or subcutaneous nodules, most often on the head, face, or upper arms. It is generally chronic and occurs most often in women between the ages of 20 and 45.
The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).