22-nucleotide RNAs trigger secondary siRNA biogenesis in plants.
Summary of "22-nucleotide RNAs trigger secondary siRNA biogenesis in plants."
The effect of RNA silencing in plants can be amplified if the production of secondary small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is triggered by the interaction of microRNAs (miRNAs) or siRNAs with a long target RNA. miRNA and siRNA interactions are not all equivalent, however; most of them do not trigger secondary siRNA production. Here we use bioinformatics to show that the secondary siRNA triggers are miRNAs and transacting siRNAs of 22 nt, rather than the more typical 21-nt length. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana confirms that the siRNA-initiating miRNAs, miR173 and miR828, are effective as triggers only if expressed in a 22-nt form and, conversely, that increasing the length of miR319 from 21 to 22 nt converts it to an siRNA trigger. We also predicted and validated that the 22-nt miR771 is a secondary siRNA trigger. Our data demonstrate that the function of small RNAs is influenced by size, and that a length of 22 nt facilitates the triggering of secondary siRNA production.
Institute of Plant and Microbial Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20643946
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1001738107
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Rna, Small Interfering
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
An autosomal recessive disorder due to defects in PEROXISOME biogenesis which involves more than 13 genes encoding peroxin proteins of the peroxisomal membrane and matrix. Zellweger syndrome is typically seen in the neonatal period with features such as dysmorphic skull; MUSCLE HYPOTONIA; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; visual compromise; SEIZURES; progressive degeneration of the KIDNEYS and the LIVER. Zellweger-like syndrome refers to phenotypes resembling the neonatal Zellweger syndrome but seen in children or adults with apparently intact peroxisome biogenesis.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
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