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Stress in several guises is evident in individuals with hypertension and in those with the metabolic syndrome and may account, at least in part, for the extent and pattern of sympathetic nervous activation. Importantly, elevated activity of the sympathetic nervous system is related to the development of obesity-related illnesses including hypertension, insulin resistance, and renal, cardiac, and vascular impairment. Notably, evidence of subclinical organ damage is evident even in young, normotensive, overweight persons, thereby reinforcing the need to develop and implement effective early intervention.
Human Neurotransmitters Laboratory, Baker IDI Heart & Diabetes Institute, PO Box 6492, St Kilda Road Central, Melbourne, Vic, 8008, Australia, Elisabeth.firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current hypertension reports
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) mediates short-term increases in blood pressure. Evidence that psychosocial stress leads to chronic hypertension is mixed. The SNS activation found in obstructive ...
Sympathetic nervous system activation is a common feature in various metabolic disorders such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type-2 diabetes. The sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) mediates...
Obesity greatly increases the risk for cardiovascular, metabolic, and renal diseases and is one of the most significant and preventable causes of increased blood pressure (BP) in patients with essenti...
Clinical studies have indicated that renal denervation (RDN) suppresses sympathetic overactivity in hypertensive patients, suggesting that afferent renal nerve activity (ARNA) enhances sympathetic out...
Hypertension and associated cardiovascular diseases represent the most common health complication of obesity and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in overweight and obese patients. Emerging...
The overall goal of this proposal is to determine the role of the autonomic nervous system in the insulin resistant state associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Obesity result...
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Brain and nerve cells communicate with each other by releasing and picking up chemicals called neurotransmitters. Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter used by part of the nervous system a...
An abdominal distribution of fat is associated with the greatest heart disease risk, because commonly, several risk factors of metabolic origin cluster in these individuals. When this occu...
The purpose of the study is to investigate the links between blood pressure (BP), overweight or obesity, and sleep apnea syndrome (SAS), by studying a large cohort of subjects suffering fr...
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic nervous systems taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the central nervous system, especially the hypothalamus and the solitary nucleus, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS; these and related central and sensory structures are sometimes (but not here) considered to be part of the autonomic nervous system itself.
Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.
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Cardiology is a specialty of internal medicine. Cardiac electrophysiology : Study of the electrical properties and conduction diseases of the heart. Echocardiography : The use of ultrasound to study the mechanical function/physics of the h...
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved on October 8th 2013 Adempas® (riociguat) tablets for: (i) the treatment of adults with persistent/recurrent chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) (WHO* Group 4) after ...