Surgical treatment of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors.
Summary of "Surgical treatment of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors."
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are uncommon but clinically challenging and fascinating tumors. GEP-NETs present as either functional or as nonfunctional tumors. Functional tumors are commonly associated with a specific hormonal syndrome directly related to a hormone secreted by the tumor, like gastrinomas with a Zollinger-Ellison syndrome or carcinoid syndrome in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the ileum. Nonfunctional tumors do not secrete a hormone resulting in a clinical syndrome.
The natural course of GEP-NETs is highly variable. Small, benign neoplasms such as 90% of all insulinomas or gastric endocrine tumors type 1 are readily curable by surgical resection; however, most other GEP-NETs have a much less favorable prognosis. Patients with completely resected tumors generally have a good prognosis, and an aggressive surgical approach in patients with advanced disease may also prolong survival.
This review focuses on the current standards of surgical treatment of gastric endocrine tumors, NETs of the pancreas (PNET) and NETs of the ileum. Although the evidence level is low in many instances due to the lack of randomized controlled trials, important treatment recommendations can be given.
Department of Surgery, Philipps University Marburg, Baldingerstraße, 35043, Marburg, Germany, email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Langenbeck's archives of surgery / Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Chirurgie
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21279821
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00423-011-0741-7
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A 38-kDa integral membrane glycoprotein of the presynaptic vesicles in neuron and neuroendocrine cells. It is expressed by a variety of normal and neoplastic neuroendocrine cells and is therefore used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation in various tumors. In ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementing disorders, there is an important synapse loss due in part to a decrease of synaptophysin in the presynaptic vesicles.
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that arise from neuroendocrine cells of the GI tract and pancreas. Due to the lack of symptoms in the earl...
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is the most frequent nonepithelial tumor found in the gastrointestinal tract. One important clinical problem is that gastrointestinal stromal tum...
Constituting about 1-2% of all tumors of the pancreas, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are a subgroup of gastroenetropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) with distinct tumor genetics,...
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the stomach are the most frequent among all neuroendocrine neoplasms in the digestive tract. The diagnosis and classification are complicated by the fact that these tum...
PAX (paired box) genes encode a family of transcription factors important for organogenesis. Recently, PAX8 has been recognized as a potential immunohistochemical marker of pancreatic neuroendocrine t...
RATIONALE: Thalidomide may stop the growth of neuroendocrine tumors by stopping blood flow to the tumor. PURPOSE: Phase II trial to study the effectiveness of thalidomide in treating pati...
A prospective observational study containing three arms comprising different therapeutic measures to treat patients with neuroendocrine tumors in advanced stages. The therapy arms include...
This research involves the study of neuroendocrine tumors in order to better understand how the disease grows and spreads. This study requires will use tissue collected from from biopsies...
Given the lack of other viable treatment options for metastatic neuroendocrine tumors, contrasted with our positive anecdotal experience, and the relative tolerability of the treatment reg...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether monitoring of levels of Serological Markers ProGRP, CgA, NSE and Pyruvate Kinase M2 are effective in the Evaluation of Diagnosis, Monitori...