Obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes: sex differences and role of oestrogen receptors.
Summary of "Obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes: sex differences and role of oestrogen receptors."
Obesity increases the risk of coronary artery disease through insulin resistance, diabetes, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia. The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide and is particularly high among middle-aged women and men. After menopause, women are at an increased risk to develop visceral obesity due to the loss of endogenous ovarian hormone production. Effects of oestrogens are classically mediated by the two nuclear oestrogen receptors (ERs) α and β. In addition, more recent research has shown that the intracellular transmembrane G-protein-coupled oestrogen receptor (GPER) originally designated as GPR30 also mediates some of the actions attributed to oestrogens. Oestrogen and its receptors are important regulators of body weight and insulin sensitivity not only in women but also in men as demonstrated by ER mutations in rodents and humans. This article reviews the role of sex hormones and ERs in the context of obesity, insulin sensitivity and diabetes as well as the related clinical issues in women and men.
Molecular Internal Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Department of Internal Medicine, Triemli City Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland Department of Internal Medicine, Touchstone Diabetes Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medic
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Acta physiologica (Oxford, England)
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21281456
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1716.2010.02237.x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS. It can be caused by the presence of INSULIN ANTIBODIES or the abnormalities in insulin receptors (RECEPTOR, INSULIN) on target cell surfaces. It is often associated with OBESITY; DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS; INFECTION; and certain rare conditions. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
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