A Three-Generational Study of Risk Factors for Childhood Externalizing Behavior among African Americans and Puerto Ricans.
Summary of "A Three-Generational Study of Risk Factors for Childhood Externalizing Behavior among African Americans and Puerto Ricans."
This is the first prospective study to examine the precursors of child externalizing behavior across three generations of African Americans and Puerto Ricans. Participants comprised a community cohort of male and female African Americans and Puerto Ricans (N = 366, [Formula: see text] age = 29.4 years), who are part of an ongoing study of drug use and problem behaviors, and who had a child. Data were collected at four time waves, spanning the participants' adolescence to adulthood. Questionnaires were initially self-administered in schools in East Harlem, NY, USA (time 1). Subsequently, structured interviews were conducted by trained interviewers (times 2 and 3), and self-administered via mail (time 4). The independent variables consisted of the participants' prospective reports of their (a) relationships with their parents during adolescence, (b) depressive mood and drug use (adolescence to adulthood), (c) relationship with their oldest child between the ages of 6-13, and (d) perceptions of neighborhood crime and deterioration (in adulthood). The dependent variable was externalizing behavior in the participant's oldest child ([Formula: see text] age = 9.6 years; SD = 2.0). Structural equation modeling showed that the parent-child relationship during participants' adolescence was linked with the participants' depressive mood and drug use which, in turn, were associated with the participants' relationship with their own child, as well as with neighborhood crime and deterioration when participants were adults. The participants' depressive mood, and relationship with their own child, as well as neighborhood crime and deterioration, each had a direct pathway to externalizing behavior in the participant's child. Findings suggest that intervention programs and public policy should address parental attributes, neighborhood factors, and, especially, parenting skills, to reduce risk factors for the intergenerational transmission of externalizing behavior.
Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of urban health : bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21293938
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11524-010-9528-3
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Confounding Factors (epidemiology)
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
Risk Reduction Behavior
Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.
The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Work consisting of reporting using a method of detecting genetic causes in human traits and genetic factors in behavior using sets of twins.
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