Epilepsy in the cancer patient.
Epileptic seizures in patients with malignancies usually occur as a consequence of brain metastases from systemic cancer or the presence of a primary brain tumor. Other less-frequent causes include metabolic disorders such as electrolyte abnormalities, hypoglycemia, hypoxia and liver failure, paraneoplastic encephalitis, leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, side effects of certain chemotherapeutic agents, central nervous system infections, and pre-existing epilepsy.
We reviewed all published literature in the English language regarding the use of antiepileptic drugs in patients with cancer.
In patients with brain metastases or primary brain tumors that had never experienced seizures, prophylactic anticonvulsant treatment is justified only for a period up to 6 months postoperatively after surgical excision of a cerebral tumor, since approximately half of the patients will never develop seizures and the anti-epileptic drugs may cause toxicity and interactions with antineoplastic therapies. For brief prophylaxis, newer antiepileptic drugs such as levetiracetam and oxcarbazepine are superior to older agents like phenytoin. In patients with a malignancy and seizures, certain antiepileptic drugs that express tumor inhibitory properties should be used such as valproic acid and levetiracetam, followed by oxcarbazepine and topiramate that exhibit good tolerance, efficient seizure control and absence of significant interactions with the chemotherapy.
Future clinical trials in patients with cancer and epilepsy should focus on combinations of chemotherapeutic interventions with antiepileptic drugs that demonstrate antineoplastic activities.
Neurosurgical Research Institute, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21305288
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-011-1569-0
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A performance measure for rating the ability of a person to perform usual activities, evaluating a patient's progress after a therapeutic procedure, and determining a patient's suitability for therapy. It is used most commonly in the prognosis of cancer therapy, usually after chemotherapy and customarily administered before and after therapy. It was named for Dr. David A. Karnofsky, an American specialist in cancer chemotherapy.
A disorder characterized by the onset of myoclonus in adolescence, a marked increase in the incidence of absence seizures (see EPILEPSY, ABSENCE), and generalized major motor seizures (see EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). The myoclonic episodes tend to occur shortly after awakening. Seizures tend to be aggravated by sleep deprivation and alcohol consumption. Hereditary and sporadic forms have been identified. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p323)
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
Nursing care provided cancer patients. It includes aspects of family functioning through education of both patient and family. The specialty of oncologic nursing focuses on cancer as a major health care problem.