HIV-associated immune activation: from bench to bedside.
Summary of "HIV-associated immune activation: from bench to bedside."
HIV infection is associated with a state of chronic, generalized immune activation that has been shown in many studies to be a key predictor of progression to AIDS. Consistent with this model, non-pathogenic SIV infections of natural hosts, such as the sooty mangabeys, are characterized by low levels of immune activation during the chronic phase of infection. The molecular, cellular, and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the HIV-associated immune activation are complex and still poorly understood. There is, however, growing consensus that both viral and host factors contribute to this phenotype, with emphasis on the role played by the mucosal immune dysfunction (and consequent microbial translocation) as well as the pattern of in vivo infected CD4+ T cells. The observation that antiretroviral therapy (ART)-induced suppression of HIV replication does not fully resolve immune activation provided rationale for a number of exploratory studies of potential immune modulatory treatments to be used in HIV-infected individuals in addition to standard ART. This review provides an update on the causes and consequences of the HIV-associated immune activation, and a summary of the immune modulatory approaches that are currently under clinical investigation.
"Sapienza" University of Rome, Department of Hygiene, Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Rome, Italy; email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: AIDS research and human retroviruses
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21309730
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2010.0342
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
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Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.
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A pteridine derivative present in body fluids; elevated levels result from immune system activation, malignant disease, allograft rejection, and viral infections. (From Stedman, 26th ed) Neopterin also serves as a precursor in the biosynthesis of biopterin.
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