Assessment of risk factors for low bone mineral density in Brazilian postmenopausal women.
Summary of "Assessment of risk factors for low bone mineral density in Brazilian postmenopausal women."
Objective. To assess risk factors associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 412 Brazilian postmenopausal women, aged 40-75 years, with BMD measured using central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, were included. The clinical risk factors assessed were: age, time since menopause, smoking, physical activity, use of hormone therapy (HT) or corticosteroids, personal fracture history, maternal history of fracture, and body mass index (BMI, weight/height(2)). Low BMD was considered when total spine and/or femoral neck T-score values were = -2.0 standard deviations. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) for low BMD in the presence of the influential variables analyzed. Results. Low BMD, which occurred in 36.6% (151/412) of the participants, was observed in 22.4% of women aged 40-49 years, in 34.2% of those aged 50-59 years, and in 60.5% of those > 60 years (p < 0.001). Similarly, low BMD was observed in 21.9% of women with menopause duration = 5 years, in 39.5% with a duration of 6-10 years, and in 57.7% with menopause duration of > 10 years (p < 0.001). Seventy percent of women with BMI < 20 kg/m(2) were osteopenic/osteoporotic (p < 0.001). The percentage of HT users was 37.4%; 27.7% took regular physical activity and 24.5% were smokers. The risk for low BMD detection increased significantly with age (OR 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.14), time since menopause (OR 1.12; 95% CI 1.04-1.20), smoking (OR 3.43; 95% CI 1.67-6.96), fracture history (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.11-3.78), and maternal history of fracture (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.14-4.09). Physical activity, diet, corticotherapy and thyropathies did not influence risk. Contrarily, use of HT (OR 0.38; 95% CI 0.24-0.60) and high BMI (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.84-0.96) reduced risk (p < 0.05). Conclusion. In postmenopausal women, age, time since menopause, smoking, and personal or maternal history of fracture were strong clinical indicators of risk for low BMD, whereas the use of hormone therapy and high BMI were shown to be protective factors.
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Botucatu Medical School, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Climacteric : the journal of the International Menopause Society
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20642330
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13697137.2010.490969
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Bone Demineralization, Pathologic
Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)
Bone Density Conservation Agents
Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES.
Bone Demineralization Technique
Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.
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