NMDA Receptor Antibody Encephalitis.
Summary of "NMDA Receptor Antibody Encephalitis."
-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibody encephalitis is a recently described immunotherapy-responsive panencephalitis with characteristic features that include a psychiatric onset and a later movement disorder. This entity was first described as a paraneoplastic phenomenon in young women with ovarian teratomata. However, more recently it has become clear that the majority of patients, particularly children, do not harbor a tumor and that males can also be affected. With the development of the NMDAR antibody assay, now available worldwide, a few patients with classical limbic encephalitis and early psychosis and epilepsy have also been found to harbor these antibodies. Early diagnosis followed by immunotherapies and tumor removal, when relevant, expedite recovery from the condition. Antibody levels correlate with the clinical severity of the disease in individual patients, and the antibodies have been shown to substantially reduce NMDA receptors on hippocampal neurons both in vitro and in vivo, supporting the likely direct pathogenicity of the NMDAR antibodies.
Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Level 6, West Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Oxford, OX3 9DS, UK, email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current neurology and neuroscience reports
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21331529
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11910-011-0186-y
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.
Encephalitis Viruses, Japanese
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
Encephalitis Virus, Murray Valley
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).
Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)
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