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Objective: The concept of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs) has become so influential that there are proposals to introduce it into new diagnostic classificatory systems. The aim of this paper was to assess whether rates of comorbidity and family history of OCSDs in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) supported this concept. Method: Comorbidity and family history were assessed in a group of participants with a primary diagnosis of OCD, using structured clinical interviews. Rates of OCSDs and other anxiety disorders (OADs), excluding OCD, were compared. Results: Of the 77 OCD participants assessed, the most prevalent comorbid conditions were OADs: generalized anxiety disorder (34.6%), specific phobia (26.9%), social phobia (21.8%) and panic disorder (19.2%). The proposed OCSDs were less frequently comorbid: tic disorder (12.8%), trichotillomania (5.1%), hypochondriasis (3.8%) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) (3.8%). Similar trends were observed for a family history of these disorders. No participant reported a family history of an OCSD without a family history of an OAD. Conclusions: Although the concept of OCSDs has invigorated thinking in this complex diagnostic field, these results support the current association of OCD with OADs rather than with OCSDs.
Discipline of Psychiatry, Sydney Medical School - Nepean, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Australasian psychiatry : bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
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A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. It is effective in the treatment of depression, obsessive-compulsive disorders, anxiety, panic disorders, and alcohol amnestic disorders.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
An absence or reduced level of blood coagulation factor XII. It normally occurs in the absence of patient or family history of hemorrhagic disorders and is marked by prolonged clotting time.
Disorders comprising a spectrum of brain malformations representing the paradigm of a diffuse neuronal migration disorder. They result in cognitive impairment; SEIZURES; and HYPOTONIA or spasticity. Mutations of two genes, LIS1, the gene for the non-catalytic subunit of PLATELET-ACTIVATING FACTOR ACETYLHYDROLASE IB; and DCX or XLIS, the gene for doublecortin, have been identified as the most common causes of disorders in this spectrum. Additional variants of classical (Type I) lissencephaly have been linked to RELN, the gene for reelin, and ARX, the gene for aristaless related homeobox protein. (From Leventer, R.J., et al, Mol Med Today. 2000 Jul;6(7):277-84 and Barkovich, A.J., et al, Neurology. 2005 Dec 27;65(12):1873-87.)
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