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Lupus protein-losing enteropathy (LUPLE) is a well reported but a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The main objectives of this study are to raise awareness of LUPLE that can be easily missed by internist, rheumatologist, gastroenterologist and nephrologist, and then to be considered in any patient with unexplained edema, ascites, and hypoalbuminemia. A systematic review was performed with 112 patients who met the eligibility criteria and were critically appraised. The LUPLE was ultimately diagnosed by either Tc-(99m) albumin scintography ((99m)Tc-HAS) or fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin clearance test. Clinical features of patients, at the time of LUPLE diagnosis, were as follows: age was 34 ± 14.2 years; the female to male ratio was 5.8:1; the mean time to development of LUPLE after diagnosis of SLE was 4.19 ± 4.7 years. There was a predominance of Asian (64.7%) while 29.5% were white or Hispanic patients. Eighty percent had peripheral edema, 48% had ascites, 38% had pleural effusion, and 21% had pericardial effusion. Forty-six percent had diarrhea, 27% had abdominal pain, 22% had nausea, and 19% had vomiting. Hypoalbuminemia was the most common characteristic laboratory finding (96%). A 24-h urine protein was less than 0.5 gm in (71%). Almost all patients (96%) had positive ANA with predominant speckled patterns (55%) and hypocomplementemia (79%). Colonoscopy showed mucosal thickening in 44% of patients, and the majority of patients (52%) revealed no abnormalities; on the other hand, intestinal histology either revealed mucosal edema, inflammatory cell infiltrate, lymphangiectasia, mucosal atrophy or vasculitis in 80% of patients. All patients were started on steroids. Thirty-four percent responded to steroids alone. Sixty-six percent were started with other immunosuppressive therapies, which include cyclophosphamide (46%), azathioprine (33%), and a combination of cyclophosphamide and azathioprine (7%). A few reported cases responded to either cyclosporine or etanercept. Prognosis was very good with steroids combined with immunosuppressive therapy. This is the first systematic review of LUPLE and should be considered as an etiology of unidentified edema, ascites, and hypoalbuminemia.
Rheumatology Division, Department of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Rheumatology international
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Pathological conditions in the INTESTINES that are characterized by the gastrointestinal loss of serum proteins, including SERUM ALBUMIN; IMMUNOGLOBULINS; and at times LYMPHOCYTES. Severe condition can result in HYPOGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA or LYMPHOPENIA. Protein-losing enteropathies are associated with a number of diseases including INTESTINAL LYMPHANGIECTASIS; WHIPPLE'S DISEASE; and NEOPLASMS of the SMALL INTESTINE.
A form of lupus erythematosus in which the skin may be the only organ involved or in which skin involvement precedes the spread into other body systems. It has been classified into three forms - acute (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC with skin lesions), subacute, and chronic (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, DISCOID).
A syndrome characterized by chronic, well-established DIARRHEA (greater than one month in duration) without an identified infectious cause after thorough evaluation, in an HIV-positive individual. It is thought to be due to direct or indirect effects of HIV on the enteric mucosa. HIV enteropathy is a diagnosis of exclusion and can be made only after other forms of diarrheal illness have been ruled out. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, pp1607-8; Haubrich et al., Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed, p1155)
Review of the medical necessity of hospital or other health facility admissions, upon or within a short time following an admission, and periodic review of services provided during the course of treatment.
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.
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