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Impulsivity is the tendency to act prematurely without foresight. Behavioral and neurobiological analysis of this construct, with evidence from both animal and human studies, defines several dissociable forms depending on distinct cortico-striatal substrates. One form of impulsivity depends on the temporal discounting of reward, another on motor or response disinhibition. Impulsivity is commonly associated with addiction to drugs from different pharmacological classes, but its causal role in human addiction is unclear. We characterize in neurobehavioral and neurochemical terms a rodent model of impulsivity based on premature responding in an attentional task. Evidence is surveyed that high impulsivity on this task precedes the escalation subsequently of cocaine self-administration behavior, and also a tendency toward compulsive cocaine-seeking and to relapse. These results indicate that the vulnerability to stimulant addiction may depend on an impulsivity endophenotype. Implications of these findings for the etiology, development, and treatment of drug addiction are considered.
Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK; Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK; Department of Psychiatry, University of
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The present study examined whether people with high gambling-related cognitive bias are more likely to have higher levels of impulsivity than are those with low gambling-related cognitive bias. We use...
The core symptom of binge eating disorder (BED) is recurrent binge eating that is accompanied by a sense of loss of control. BED is frequently associated with obesity, one of the main public health ch...
The study aimed to identify similarities and differences among ketamine, methadone users, and non-drug-using controls, on impulsivity, antisocial personality, and related cognitive abilities. A case-c...
Human behavior is influenced by three core personality systems: approach, avoidance, and supervisory control. The supervisory control system is inversely related to impulsivity. Although past research...
The purpose of the this study is to compare pathological gamblers versus non-pathological gamblers using tests that measure different components of impulsivity. We aim to invite a total o...
The study aims to examine a battery of behavioral and questionnaire measures in 4 disorders clinically associated with impulsivity and in health controls, to: 1) investigate if the differe...
This study aims to use resting-state and task based functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) as a tool to evaluate trait characteristics of impulsivity in subjects with borderline pers...
The purpose of this study is to assess neurocognitive and associated neural regions/circuitry disruptions relevant to impulsive relapse in cocaine-addicted subjects, and the relationship o...
Inhibition control deficits is a major risk factor in the transition to the act in suicidal patients. Neuroimaging studies have shown that this failure was associated with hypoactivity in ...
A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-IV)
Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.
Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
Psychiatry is the study of mental disorders and their diagnosis, management and prevention. Conditions include schizophrenia, severe depression and panic disorders among others. There are pharmaceutical treatments as well as other therapies to help...