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Impulsivity is the tendency to act prematurely without foresight. Behavioral and neurobiological analysis of this construct, with evidence from both animal and human studies, defines several dissociable forms depending on distinct cortico-striatal substrates. One form of impulsivity depends on the temporal discounting of reward, another on motor or response disinhibition. Impulsivity is commonly associated with addiction to drugs from different pharmacological classes, but its causal role in human addiction is unclear. We characterize in neurobehavioral and neurochemical terms a rodent model of impulsivity based on premature responding in an attentional task. Evidence is surveyed that high impulsivity on this task precedes the escalation subsequently of cocaine self-administration behavior, and also a tendency toward compulsive cocaine-seeking and to relapse. These results indicate that the vulnerability to stimulant addiction may depend on an impulsivity endophenotype. Implications of these findings for the etiology, development, and treatment of drug addiction are considered.
Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK; Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK; Department of Psychiatry, University of
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When faced with a problem or choice, humans can use two different strategies: "cognitive reflectivity," which involves slow responses and fewer mistakes, or "cognitive impulsivity," which comprises of...
Initial evidence that cognitive function improves after bariatric surgery exists. The post-surgery increase in cognitive control might correspond with a decrease of impulsive symptoms after surgery. T...
Comments on the original articles "Rapid-response impulsivity: Definitions, measurement issues, and clinical implications" (see record 2015-14753-004) and "Choice impulsivity: Definitions, measurement...
'Impulsivity' refers to a range of behaviours including preference for immediate reward (temporal-impulsivity) and the tendency to make premature decisions (reflection-impulsivity) and responses (moto...
A substantial number of university students exceed alcohol guidelines. Impulsivity has been repeatedly implicated in heavy alcohol use, yet despite knowledge that impulsivity is multifaceted, there ha...
The purpose of the this study is to compare pathological gamblers versus non-pathological gamblers using tests that measure different components of impulsivity. We aim to invite a total o...
The purpose of this study is to assess neurocognitive and associated neural regions/circuitry disruptions relevant to impulsive relapse in cocaine-addicted subjects, and the relationship o...
This study is dedicated to achieving a better understanding of how the brain processes information. Specifically, the investigators are studying cognitive function, thought process, and im...
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between 5-HT2R function, impulsivity and cue reactivity in cocaine dependent subjects and healthy controls and examine specific eff...
Control processes are classes of brain activity that initiate, coordinate, synchronize, and regulate elemental cognitive functions for the conduct of goal-directed behavior. The proposed r...
A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-IV)
Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.
Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
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Psychiatry is the study of mental disorders and their diagnosis, management and prevention. Conditions include schizophrenia, severe depression and panic disorders among others. There are pharmaceutical treatments as well as other therapies to help...