Symptoms and diagnostics of lung neuroendocrine tumors.
Summary of "Symptoms and diagnostics of lung neuroendocrine tumors."
Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors comprise 20% of all lung cancers. They are separated into 4 subgroups: typical carcinoid tumor, atypical carcinoid tumor, large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and small-cell lung carcinoma. The major symptoms present in 60% of patients are cough, hemoptysis, and obstructive pneumonia. They may also exhibit hormonally related symptoms e.g. carcinoid syndrome. Small cell lung cancer is the most common subgroup, with rapid progression, aggressive metastatic potential and the worst prognosis. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is rare but also has a poor prognosis. Typical carcinoid may be accompanied with hormone related symptoms and has the best prognosis; atypical one on the contrary may cause lymph node and distant metastases in half of the cases. Elevated plasma levels of chromogranin-A are present in majority of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors and act as tumor marker. The mainstay of treatment is radical surgery if possible. In locally advanced or metastatic disease combination chemotherapy and somatostatin-analogues may have beneficial effect. This review focuses on the general features, and current diagnostic options of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. Orv. Hetil., 2011, 152, 366-370.
Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Pulmonológiai Klinika Budapest Diósárok út 1/C 1125.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Orvosi hetilap
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21354952
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/OH.2011.29041
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A 38-kDa integral membrane glycoprotein of the presynaptic vesicles in neuron and neuroendocrine cells. It is expressed by a variety of normal and neoplastic neuroendocrine cells and is therefore used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation in various tumors. In ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementing disorders, there is an important synapse loss due in part to a decrease of synaptophysin in the presynaptic vesicles.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.
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