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The aim of the study was to review the most important flat lesions, to demonstrate the difficulty of classifying several lesions, to introduce to urologists the new problems linked to FD and to suggest new models for accurate analysis. MATERIALS AND
Data about urothelial carcinomas and flat lesions and fluorescence were searched on MEDLINE by using the following keywords: cystoscopy; fluorescence; flat lesion; carcinoma in situ; metaplasia; bladder carcinoma.
No evidence 1 level data was available. Flat lesions are a new challenge in pathology and urology. As urologists have a better sight of bladder lesions with fluorescence diagnosis (Hexvix(®)), pathologists will be asked in the future to evaluate more frequently flat lesions, which are sometimes difficult to classify and for which interobserver agreement is not always evident.
It is essential to determine accurate histologic criteria, able to recognize flat lesions of the bladder and permitting adequate patients' treatment. Further studies with larger cohort of patients are needed to validate preliminary results obtained with fluorescence and to improve our knowledge of the natural history of these tumours.
Assistance publique-hôpitaux de Paris, service d'anatomopathologie de la Pitié-Salpêtrière, faculté de médecine Pierre-et-Marie-Curie, université Paris VI, 47-83, boulevard de l'hôpital, 75013 Paris, France.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Progres en urologie : journal de l'Association francaise d'urologie et de la Societe francaise d'urologie
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Collaborations in biotechnology
Commercial and academic collaborations are used throughout the biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector to enhance research and product development. Collaborations can take the form of research and evaluation agreements, licensing, partnerships etc. ...