Prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex for differentiation of enuresis in children.
Summary of "Prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex for differentiation of enuresis in children."
Children with enuresis can be classified into those who wet their beds only at night (monosymptomatic enuresis, mE), and those who additionally suffer from daytime symptoms, such as urgency or incontinence (non-monosymptomatic enuresis, nmE). Evidence is growing that enuresis may have a central origin: bedwetting children have lower brainstem reflex control (impaired prepulse inhibition) than normal controls. However, findings on this subject are inconsistent. To date, there has been no study in pediatric patients according to the type of enuresis. With the aim of determining whether mE and nmE children differ in terms of central reflex control, we divided 30 enuretic children into two groups (mE and nmE) based on data recorded in a bladder diary and clinical history (19 with history of diurnal urge, 11 without; age 5-14 years). Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex of the children was measured and compared between groups. A significant difference in PPI was observed between the groups, with the nmE group having a lower median PPI level than the mE group (10 vs. 73%, respectively; p = 0.0002). These findings lead to the assumption that a loss of central control plays a role only in the etiology of nmE. Moreover, they may throw a new light on the classification of enuresis.
Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21373778
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-011-1817-x
Enuresis is defined as intermittent urinary incontinence during sleep in a child at least five years of age. Approximately 5% to 10% of all seven-year-olds have enuresis, and an estimated 5 to 7 milli...
The symptoms of schizophrenia are evaluated in three general categories; positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle reflex is commonly used ...
Reflecting on core personal values is a common means of self-affirmation that can change how a person responds to threatening events. Specifically, self-affirmation has been found to reduce psychologi...
About 30% of people on Earth have latent toxoplasmosis. Infected subjects do not express any clinical symptoms, however, they carry dormant stages of parasite Toxoplasma for the rest of their life. Th...
This article explores the use of the postrotary nystagmus (PRN) test for children younger than current norms (children 4.0 yr-8.11 yr). In the first study, 37 children ages 4-9 yr were examined in the...
This study is looking at problems people sometimes have taking in information from their senses. Specifically, we are comparing the way in which people diagnosed with schizophrenia proces...
The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of chronic cocaine use on the acoustic startle response and on gating of this response in humans.
The purpose of the Strongest Families (formerly Family Help Program)is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Strongest Families distance intervention compared to usual or standard care that...
Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis, defined as the involuntary loss of urine during the night at an age where voluntary bladder control should have been attained and on the background of n...
This study aims to investigate whether the atypical antipsychotic and mixed 5-HT2/D2 antagonist sertindole modulates or improves both subcortical and cortical information processing in sch...
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Involuntary discharge of URINE after expected age of completed development of urinary control. This can happen during the daytime (DIURNAL ENURESIS) while one is awake or during sleep (NOCTURNAL ENURESIS). Enuresis can be in children or in adults (as persistent primary enuresis and secondary adult-onset enuresis).
Contractions of the abdominal muscles upon stimulation of the skin (superficial abdominal reflex) or tapping neighboring bony structures (deep abdominal reflex). The superficial reflex may be weak or absent, for example, after a stroke, a sign of upper (suprasegmental) motor neuron lesions. (Stedman, 25th ed & Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p1073)
A growth differentiation factor that is secreted in response to cell stress and in response to MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION. In addition growth differentiation factor 15 demonstrates a diverse array of biological properties including the induction of cartilage formation, the inhibition of hematopoietic progenitor proliferation, and the induction of neuronal migration.
An abnormal reflex consisting of dorsiflexion of the great toe and abduction of the other toes in response to cutaneous stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot.
A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.