Renal Biomarkers of Kidney Injury in Cardiorenal Syndrome.
Summary of "Renal Biomarkers of Kidney Injury in Cardiorenal Syndrome."
The cardiorenal syndromes comprise a group of disorders in which impairment of either the heart or the kidney results in injury to the other. Although the pathophysiology is not yet well understood, the clinical consequences are increasingly recognized. In congestive heart failure, the development of worsening renal function is associated with increased hospitalizations and death. Urinary biomarkers offer a rapid and noninvasive method for detecting kidney injury. The role of urinary biomarkers such as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule 1, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, interleukin-18, and cystatin C are being investigated to provide diagnostic, prognostic, and, eventually, therapeutic information. This article reviews the utility of urinary biomarkers in congestive heart failure and explores directions for future research.
Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, University of Minnesota, 717 Delaware Street, Southeast, Suite 353, Minneapolis, MN, 55414, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current heart failure reports
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21380936
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11897-011-0052-x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Acute Kidney Injury
Abrupt reduction in kidney function defined as an absolute increase in serum CREATININE of more than or equal to 0.3. mg/dl, a percentage increase in serum creatinine of more than or equal to 50%, or a reduction in urine output. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
Functional KIDNEY FAILURE in patients with liver disease, usually LIVER CIRRHOSIS or portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL), and in the absence of intrinsic renal disease or kidney abnormality. It is characterized by intense renal vasculature constriction, reduced renal blood flow, OLIGURIA, and sodium retention.
A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the KIDNEY, such as RENAL CORTICAL NECROSIS. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC); THROMBOCYTOPENIA; and ACUTE RENAL FAILURE.
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE. The most severe form is KIDNEY FAILURE. Renal function may deteriorate slowly (RENAL INSUFFICIENCY, CHRONIC) or precipitously (RENAL INSUFFICIENCY, ACUTE).
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