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The procaine effect on human erythrocytes was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) at three procaine concentrations, about 5 x 10(-7) M, 5 x 10(-5) M and 5 x 10(-4) M. The changes in surface morphology of erythrocyte membrane bring direct evidence on the procaine effect on the cell membrane at micro- and nanometer scale. AFM images of the control erythrocytes (without procaine) showed a well defined concave (donut) shape of cells. The structure of control erythrocytes membrane is featured by closely packed nanometer size intra-membranous particles. After the incubation of the fresh blood with increasing procaine concentrations, a progressive increase in both concave depth and surface roughness of erythrocyte membrane was observed. The particles (granules) of the membrane surface increased progressively with increasing procaine concentrations. The changes in the surface morphology of erythrocyte membrane can be associated with the enlargement of surface granules, due to the aggregation of membranous particles within the cell surface, and the domain structure formation induced by procaine. A large number of moderate elevations from 25 nm to almost 40 nm in lateral size were found to be rather uniformly distributed on the surface of whole erythrocytes at low and medium procaine concentrations, respectively. At the highest procaine concentration, the granules of about 80 nm to almost 90 nm lateral size were found to form rows rather well separated. These data are in substantial agreement with the published results obtained on membrane models in the presence of procaine.
Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 400028 Cluj-Napoca, Romania. firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Combinatorial chemistry & high throughput screening
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A ubiquitous membrane transport protein found in the plasma membrane of diverse cell types and tissues, and in nuclear, mitochondrial, and Golgi membranes. It is the major integral transmembrane protein of the erythrocyte plasma membrane, comprising 25% of the total membrane protein. It exists as a dimer and performs the important function of allowing the efficient transport of bicarbonate across erythrocyte cell membranes in exchange for chloride ion.
A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.
A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.
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Collaborations in biotechnology
Commercial and academic collaborations are used throughout the biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector to enhance research and product development. Collaborations can take the form of research and evaluation agreements, licensing, partnerships etc. ...