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We determined the probability of individuals having the 'optimal' mitochondrial biogenesis related endurance polygenic profile, and compared the endurance polygenic profile of Israeli (Caucasian) endurance athletes (n=74), power athletes (n=81), and non-athletes (n=240). We computed a mitochondrial biogenesis related 'endurance genotype score' (EGS, scoring from 0 to 100) from the accumulated combination of six polymorphisms in the PPARGC1A-NRF-TFAM pathway. Some of the variant alleles of the polymorphisms studied were so infrequent, that the probability of possessing an 'optimal' EGS (=100) was 0% in the entire study population. However, the EGS was significantly higher (P<0.001) in endurance athletes (38.9+/-17.1) compared with controls (30.6+/-12.4) or power athletes (29.0+/-11.2). In summary, although the probability of an individual possessing a theoretically 'optimal' genetic background for endurance sports is very low, in general endurance athletes have a polygenic profile that is more suitable for mitochondrial biogenesis.
Genetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Life Sciences Division, The Zinman College of Physical Education and Sport Sciences at Wingate Institute, Israel.
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A performance test based on forced MOTOR ACTIVITY on a rotating rod, usually by a rodent. Parameters include the riding time (seconds) or endurance. Test is used to evaluate balance and coordination of the subjects, particular in experimental animal models for neurological disorders and drug effects.
A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
Agents that improve the ability to carry out activities such as athletics, mental endurance, work, and resistance to stress. The substances can include PRESCRIPTION DRUGS; DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS; phytochemicals; and ILLICIT DRUGS.
Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).
Illegitimate use of drugs for a desired effect in competitive sports; includes humans and animals.