Loss of Caspase-2-dependent Apoptosis Induces Autophagy after Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Primary Cultures of Young Adult Cortical Neurons.
Summary of "Loss of Caspase-2-dependent Apoptosis Induces Autophagy after Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Primary Cultures of Young Adult Cortical Neurons."
Mitochondrial dysfunctions have been associated with neuronal apoptosis and are characteristic of neurodegenerative conditions. Caspases play a central role in apoptosis; however, their involvement in mitochondrial dysfunction-induced neuronal apoptosis remains elusive. In the present report using rotenone, a complex I inhibitor that causes mitochondrial dysfunction, we determined the initiator caspase and its role in cell death in primary cultures of cortical neurons from young adult mice (1-2 months old). By pretreating the cells with a cell-permeable, biotinylated pan-caspase inhibitor that irreversibly binds to and traps the active caspase, we identified caspase-2 as an initiator caspase activated in rotenone-treated primary neurons. Loss of caspase-2 inhibited rotenone-induced apoptosis; however, these neurons underwent a delayed cell death by necrosis. We further found that caspase-2 acts upstream of mitochondria to mediate rotenone-induced apoptosis in neurons. The loss of caspase-2 significantly inhibited rotenone-induced activation of Bid and Bax and the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis inducing factor from mitochondria. Rotenone-induced downstream activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were also inhibited in the neurons lacking caspase-2. Autophagy was enhanced in caspase-2 knock-out neurons after rotenone treatment, and this response was important in prolonging neuronal survival. In summary, the present study identifies a novel function of caspase-2 in mitochondrial oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in neurons cultured from young adult mice.
From the Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Journal of biological chemistry
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21216964
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M110.163824
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
X-linked Inhibitor Of Apoptosis Protein
An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that is translated by a rare cap-independent mechanism. It blocks caspase-mediated cellular destruction by inhibiting CASPASE 3; CASPASE 7; and CASPASE 9.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 7; CASPASE 8; and CASPASE 10. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 3 and CASPASE 10. Several isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
Casp8 And Fadd-like Apoptosis Regulating Protein
An APOPTOSIS-regulating protein that is structurally related to CASPASE 8 and competes with CASPASE 8 for binding to FAS ASSOCIATED DEATH DOMAIN PROTEIN. Two forms of CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulating protein exist, a long form containing a caspase-like enzymatically inactive domain and a short form which lacks the caspase-like domain.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated by pro-apoptotic factors that are released during cell stress and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
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