Biomechanics of the upper airway: changing concepts in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea.
Summary of "Biomechanics of the upper airway: changing concepts in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea."
Disorders in central nervous system regulation may have a role in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA).
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: British dental journal
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21394148
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bdj.2011.169
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Sleep Apnea, Central
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)
Sleep Apnea Syndromes
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome
HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.
PURPOSE: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) differs between genders in terms of the type, signs, and symptoms of the disease. Partial upper airway obstruction is underdiagnosed and undertreated. METHODS...
Reduced upper airway muscle activity during sleep is fundamental to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) pathogenesis. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HGNS) counteracts this problem, with potential to reduce...
To study the possible predictive value of drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) in assessing therapeutic response to implanted upper airway stimulation (UAS) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
Background The mechanisms by which mandibular advancement splints (MAS) improve obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are not well understood. This study aimed to evaluate the mechanism of action of MAS by a...
Drug treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is desirable because at least 30% of patients do not tolerate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. The negative pressure reflex (NPR)...
Prospective, interventional cohort study of drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) to evaluate the upper airway in a cohort of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) surgical patients. This study is d...
The purpose of this study is to determine if a certain medication, alone or combined with another medication, will increase muscle activity in the upper airway in people who do and people...
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is characterised by a partial or complete collapse of the upper airway during sleep. The treatment of choice for OSA is Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (...
Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) have repetitive episodes of partial or complete upper airway obstruction during sleep. This leads to sleep fragmentation and symptoms like exce...
Obstructive sleep apnea is a condition characterized by obstruction of the upper airways and episodes of apnea and hypopnea during sleep. It is associated with significant adverse health...