Endogenous and Exogenous Ligands of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor: Current State of Art.
Summary of "Endogenous and Exogenous Ligands of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor: Current State of Art."
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an important transcriptional regulator of drug metabolizing enzymes that dominantly controls the expression of cytochrome P450 CYP1 family genes and some phase II enzymes. AhR also has many endogenous functions including cell cycle control, immune response, and cell differentiation. In addition, AhR is well-known to be involved in chemicallyinduced carcinogenesis. AhR is activated by a variety of endogenous and exogenous ligands. While exogenous activation of AhR has deleterious effects on human organism, sustained activation of AhR by endogenous ligands is indispensable for proper cell functions. Therefore, the effects of exogenous and endogenous ligands on AhR resemble the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde story. The aim of the current paper is to summarize and update the knowledge on exogenous and endogenous AhR ligands.
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Heyrovskeho 1203, Hradec Kralove 50005, Czech Republic. firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current drug metabolism
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF containing protein that forms a complex with DIOXIN RECEPTOR. The complex binds xenobiotic regulatory elements and activates transcription of a variety of genes including UDP GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. AhR nuclear translocator is also a subunit of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1.
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.
Gaba-b Receptor Antagonists
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-B RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-B RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Gaba-a Receptor Antagonists
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-A RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-A RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a key transcriptional regulator of Th17-cell differentiation. Although endogenous ligands have yet to be identified, evidence suggests that tryptophan metabolite...
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which has been central to studies in toxicology for years as the receptor for the toxicant dioxin, is rapidly gaining interest in immunology based on its ability t...
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates the induction of a variety of xenobiotic metabolism genes. Activation of the AhR occurs through binding to a group of structurally diverse compounds, most...
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of pattern recognition receptors sensing microbial components and triggering an immune response against pathogens. In addition to their role in anti-infection im...
Smokers have lower plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) compared with nonsmokers. To determine the molecular basis of this observation,...
we hypothesize that exogenous reinfection is very important in the Taiwan endemic. Therefore, we design a series of studies to evaluate the individual contribution of exogenous reinfection...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of different ligands of GPR 119 (a G protein-coupled receptor in the intestine) on the secretion of the incretin hormones, GLP-1 and GIP...
Ghrelin, an acylated peptide consisting of 28 amino acids, is the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). It is synthesized predominantly in the stomach but...
The investigators hypothesize that the CXCR2 ligands/CXCR2 biological axis plays an important role in promoting angiogenesis in PC; and that the genetic changes and the microenvironment of...
Visceral hypersensitivity as evidence of central sensory sensitization is evident in many patients with functional disorders such as functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome...