p21 (WAF1) is component of a positive feedback loop that maintains the p53 transcriptional program.
Summary of "p21 (WAF1) is component of a positive feedback loop that maintains the p53 transcriptional program."
The regulation of p53 activity through the MDM2 negative feedback loop is driven in part by an extrinsic ATM-pulse that maintains p53 oscillations in response to DNA damage. We report here that the p53 pathway has evolved an intrinsic positive feedback loop that is maintained by the p53-inducible gene product p21WAF1. p21-null cancer cells have defects in p53 protein turnover, reductions in MDM2-mediated degradation of p53, and reduced DNA damage-induced ubiquitination of p53. TLR3-IRF1 or ATM-dependent signaling to p53 is defective in p21-null cells and complementation of the p21 gene in p21-null cancer cells restores the p53 transcriptional response. The mechanism of p53 inactivity in p21-null cells is linked to a p53 protein equilibrium shift from chromatin into cytosolic fractions and complementation of the p21 gene into p21-null cells restores the nuclear localization of p53. A loss of p53 transcriptional function in murine B-cells heterozygous or homozygous null for p21 highlights a p21-gene dosage effect that maintains the full p53 transcriptional response. ATM inhibition results in nuclear exclusion of p53 highlighting a positive genetic interaction between ATM and p21. P21 protein oscillates in undamaged proliferating cells, and reductions of p21 protein using siRNA eliminate the DNA damage-induced p53 pulse. The p53 transcription program has evolved a negative feedback loop maintained by MDM2 that is counteracted by a positive feedback loop maintained by ATM-p21 the balance of which controls the specific activity of p53 as a transcription factor.
University of Edinburgh; Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.
Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group D, Member 1
A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that negatively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and plays a role as a regulatory component of the circadian clock system. The Nr1d1 nuclear receptor expression is cyclically-regulated by a feedback loop involving its positive regulation by CLOCK PROTEIN; BMAL1 PROTEIN heterodimers and its negative regulation by CRYPTOCHROME and PERIOD PROTEINS.
E2f Transcription Factors
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
Cyclin-dependent Kinase 9
A multifunctional CDC2 kinase-related kinase that plays roles in transcriptional elongation, CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and APOPTOSIS. It is found associated with CYCLIN T and is a component of POSITIVE TRANSCRIPTIONAL ELONGATION FACTOR B.
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