Expression of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein I and II (CRABP I and II) in embryonic mouse hearts treated with retinoic acid.
Summary of "Expression of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein I and II (CRABP I and II) in embryonic mouse hearts treated with retinoic acid."
Cellular retinoic acid binding proteins are considered to be involved in retinoic acid (RA) signaling pathways. Our aim was to compare the expression and localization of cellular retinoic acid binding proteins I and II (CRABP I and II) in embryonic mouse hearts during normal development and after a single teratogenic dose of RA. Techniques such as real-time PCR, RT-PCR, Western blots and immunostaining were employed to examine hearts from embryos at 9-17 dpc. RA treatment at 8.5dpc affects production of CRABP I and II in the heart in the 48-hour period. Changes in expression of mRNA for retinaldehyde dehydrogenase II (Raldh2), Crabp1 and Crabp2 genes also occur within the same time window (i.e. 10-11dpc) after RA treatment. In the embryonic control heart these proteins are localized in groups of cells within the outflow tract (OT), and the atrioventricular endocardial cushions. A gradient of labeling was observed with CRABP II but not for CRABP I along the myocardium of the looped heart at 11 dpc; this gradient is abolished in hearts treated with RA, whereas an increase of RALDH2 staining has been observed at 10 dpc in RA-treated hearts. Some populations of endocardial endothelial cells were intensively stained with anti-CRABP II whereas CRABP I was negative in these structures. These results suggest that CRABP I and II are independently regulated during heart development, playing different roles in RA signaling, essential for early remodeling of the heart tube and alignment of the great arteries to their respective ventricles.
Department of Pathological Anatomy, Medical University of Warsaw, Warszawa, Poland.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Acta biochimica Polonica
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Receptors, Retinoic Acid
Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.
Ga-binding Protein Transcription Factor
A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.
Proto-oncogene Proteins C-myc
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
Retinoid X Receptors
A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signalling pathways.
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