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This report presents a case of nephrotic syndrome and renal failure that developed in a 53-year-old female with metastatic breast carcinoma. She was diagnosed to have osteolytic bone metastases 5 years prior to admission, and had been administered pamidronate with a total dose of approximately 6800 mg. A renal biopsy revealed tubulointerstitial damage and marked wrinkling and retraction of the glomerular basement membrane with hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the epithelial cells, compatible with the collapsing form of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Despite the discontinuation of pamidronate after admission, her renal function gradually decreased. She was finally managed with continuous palliative care for advanced malignancy through a shared effort, and died 96 days after undergoing the renal biopsy. Although the clinical impact of the pamidronate-associated kidney injury on the longitudinal changes in renal function remains to be delineated, it is therefore reasonable to consider that the collapsing FSGS associated with tubulointerstitial damage may have resulted in the irreversible renal injuries that were observed in the current case. Further studies and accumulated experience with renal biopsy are required to better determine the relationship between pathological alterations and prognostic characteristics among patients with pamidronate-associated renal impairments.
Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, 329-0498, Japan.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Clinical and experimental nephrology
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Abnormal fluid retention by the body due to impaired cardiac function or heart failure. It is usually characterized by increase in venous and capillary pressure, and swollen legs when standing. It is different from the generalized edema caused by renal dysfunction (NEPHROTIC SYNDROME).
Condition where a primary dysfunction of either heart or kidney results in failure of the other organ (e.g., HEART FAILURE with worsening RENAL INSUFFICIENCY).
A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)
A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.
An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)