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Post-menopausal women belong to an age group that is highly susceptible to influenza infection and its most serious complications. However, data on the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in these women is limited. Therefore, the antibody response to influenza vaccination was assessed in a postmenopausal mouse model. An inactivated-detergent-split vaccine from the A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) influenza virus strain was given to three groups of mice: ovariectomized (OVEX), OVEX with 17β-estradiol replacement (OVEX+E2), and sham-OVEX. The OVEX+E2 group produced influenza virus-specific serum antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies, at significantly higher levels (p<0.001) than did OVEX mice. These levels matched those observed in the sham-OVEX group, indicating that ovariectomy negatively modulates the antibody response to the influenza vaccine, whereas 17β-estradiol replacement restores this response to levels observed in intact animals. Our findings suggest that immunogenicity and efficacy of influenza vaccines need to be evaluated in postmenopausal women, including women receiving hormone replacement therapy.
Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
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Generally refers to the 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries and the PLACENTA. It is also produced by the adipose tissue of men and postmenopausal women. The 17-alpha-isomer of estradiol binds weakly to estrogen receptors (RECEPTORS, ESTROGEN) and exhibits little estrogenic activity in estrogen-responsive tissues. Various isomers can be synthesized.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed or attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
Swine Flu - H1N1 influenza - H7N9
Swine flu is the common name given to a relatively new strain of influenza (flu) that caused a flu pandemic in 2009-2010. It is also referred to as H1N1 influenza (because it is the H1N1 strain of virus). The H1N1 flu virus will be one of the main vi...
Women's Health - key topics include breast cancer, pregnancy, menopause, stroke Follow and track Women's Health News on BioPortfolio: Women's Health News RSS Women'...