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Understanding the topographic anatomy of the membranous layer of superficial fascia of anterior abdominal wall may help in explaining the body contour deformities and provide the anatomic basis for surgical corrections. Existing controversies in the presence and extent of membranous layer of the superficial fascia of anterior abdominal wall among anatomists and misinterpretation of its anatomical description by clinicians provoked us to re-evaluate the superficial fascia of anterior abdominal wall.
Fifty CT scans of abdominal region of either sex were studied to see the vertical and horizontal extent of membranous layer.
The membranous layer was clearly seen in whole of the anterior abdominal wall except for few cases where either it was not clear superiorly in zone 1 (16%) or inferiorly in zone 3 (6%). On combining the horizontal and vertical extent of membranous layer in each and every individual, altogether eight types of patterns were obtained. Out of these patterns, four were present in females and all the eight types in males.
The membranous layer is present in whole of the anterior abdominal wall and it divides the superficial fascia into three layers: superficial fatty layer, intermediate membranous layer, and deep fatty layer. If membranous layer is not clear in CT scan the reason could be the absence of deposition of fat in deep compartment.
Department of Anatomy, Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University (Earstwhile King George's Medical College), Lucknow, UP, India, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Surgical and radiologic anatomy : SRA
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The outer margins of the ABDOMEN, extending from the osteocartilaginous thoracic cage to the PELVIS. Though its major part is muscular, the abdominal wall consists of at least seven layers: the SKIN, subcutaneous fat, deep FASCIA; ABDOMINAL MUSCLES, transversalis fascia, extraperitoneal fat, and the parietal PERITONEUM.
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The tunnel in the lower anterior ABDOMINAL WALL through which the SPERMATIC CORD, in the male; ROUND LIGAMENT, in the female; nerves; and vessels pass. Its internal end is at the deep inguinal ring and its external end is at the superficial inguinal ring.
Contractions of the abdominal muscles upon stimulation of the skin (superficial abdominal reflex) or tapping neighboring bony structures (deep abdominal reflex). The superficial reflex may be weak or absent, for example, after a stroke, a sign of upper (suprasegmental) motor neuron lesions. (Stedman, 25th ed & Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p1073)
A protrusion of abdominal structures through the retaining ABDOMINAL WALL. It involves two parts: an opening in the abdominal wall, and a hernia sac consisting of PERITONEUM and abdominal contents. Abdominal hernias include groin hernia (HERNIA, FEMORAL; HERNIA, INGUINAL) and VENTRAL HERNIA.