Clinical and imaging diagnostics of Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy.
Summary of "Clinical and imaging diagnostics of Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy."
The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) is primarily made by clinical symptoms, but might still remain challenging even for experienced neurologists. Neuroradiologic imaging may be a useful tool in the diagnostic work-up, particularly for excluding other diseases, such as normal pressure hydrocephalus, multi-infarct dementia and cerebellar lesions. Nuclear medicine methods can additionally support the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of PD and MSA.
Klinik für Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar, Kirrberger Str. 1, 66421, Homburg/Saar, Deutschland, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Der Radiologe
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21431458
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00117-010-2095-5
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Multiple System Atrophy
A syndrome complex composed of three conditions which represent clinical variants of the same disease process: STRIATONIGRAL DEGENERATION; SHY-DRAGER SYNDROME; and the sporadic form of OLIVOPONTOCEREBELLAR ATROPHIES. Clinical features include autonomic, cerebellar, and basal ganglia dysfunction. Pathologic examination reveals atrophy of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, pons, and medulla, with prominent loss of autonomic neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1076; Baillieres Clin Neurol 1997 Apr;6(1):187-204; Med Clin North Am 1999 Mar;83(2):381-92)
A group of inherited and sporadic disorders which share progressive ataxia in combination with atrophy of the CEREBELLUM; PONS; and inferior olivary nuclei. Additional clinical features may include MUSCLE RIGIDITY; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; RETINAL DEGENERATION; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; DEMENTIA; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and OPHTHALMOPLEGIA. The familial form has an earlier onset (second decade) and may feature spinal cord atrophy. The sporadic form tends to present in the fifth or sixth decade, and is considered a clinical subtype of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1085)
A progressive neurodegenerative condition of the central and autonomic nervous systems characterized by atrophy of the preganglionic lateral horn neurons of the thoracic spinal cord. This disease is generally considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Affected individuals present in the fifth or sixth decade with ORTHOSTASIS and bladder dysfunction; and later develop FECAL INCONTINENCE; anhidrosis; ATAXIA; IMPOTENCE; and alterations of tone suggestive of basal ganglia dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p536)
Parkinson Disease, Secondary
Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)
A sporadic neurodegenerative disease with onset in middle-age characterized clinically by Parkinsonian features (e.g., MUSCLE RIGIDITY; HYPOKINESIA; stooped posture) and HYPOTENSION. This condition is considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Pathologic features include a prominent loss of neurons in the zona compacta of the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and PUTAMEN. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1075-6)
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