Are Gentamicin and/or Vancomycin Associated with Ototoxicity in the Neonate? A Retrospective Audit.
Summary of "Are Gentamicin and/or Vancomycin Associated with Ototoxicity in the Neonate? A Retrospective Audit."
Background: Aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity has been reported in neonates but its incidence is poorly defined, whereas vancomycin-induced ototoxicity has not been reported in neonates. Objective: To compare hearing test results in infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) who were or were not treated with extended interval gentamicin dosing and/or standard vancomycin dosing. Method:A database of otoacoustic emissions (OAE), over a 5-year period of NICU admissions, was combined with databases of gentamicin and vancomycin dosing to compare patients treated or not treated with these antibiotics.Results:A total of 2,347 OAE results was available. OAE failure rates were: no gentamicin and no vancomycin (noGnoV), 7% (85/1,233); gentamicin but no vancomycin (GnoV), 4% (42/949); vancomycin but no gentamicin (VnoG), 22% (9/41) and gentamicin and vancomycin (GandV), 14% (17/124). Compared to noGnoV there was a decreased risk of OAE failure in GnoV (p = 0.022, OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.94) and an increased risk in VnoG (p = 0.003, OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.54-7.75) and GandV, (p = 0.006, OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.26-3.83). Conclusions:Gentamicin, as used and evaluated in this audit, showed no evidence of an increased risk of ototoxicity; what was observed was a statistically significant decrease in OAE failure rate. Vancomycin, by contrast, was associated with ototoxicity.
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Christchurch Hospital, Christchurch, New Zealand.
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Antibiotic produced by Micromonospora inyoensis. It is closely related to gentamicin C1A, one of the components of the gentamicin complex (GENTAMICINS).
A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel to improve the quality of patient care and outcomes. The clinical audit was formally introduced in 1993 into the United Kingdom's National Health Service.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.
Cyclic basic peptide related to VIOMYCIN. It is isolated from an induced mutant of Streptomyces griseoverticillatus var. tuberacticus and acts as an antitubercular agent with less ototoxicity than tuberactinomycin.
Semisynthetic 1-N-ethyl derivative of SISOMYCIN, an aminoglycoside antibiotic with action similar to gentamicin, but less ear and kidney toxicity.
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