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Cocoa is known as an important source of flavan-3-ols, but their fate "from the bean to the bar" is not yet clear. Here, procyanidin A2 found in native cocoa beans (9-13 mg/kg) appeared partially epimerized into A2(E1) through fermentation, whereas a second epimer (A2(E2)) emerged after roasting. At m/z 575, dehydrodiepicatechin A was revealed to be the major HPLC peak before fermentation, whereas F1, a marker of well-conducted fermentations, becomes the most intense after roasting. RP-HPLC-ESI(-)-HRMS/MS analysis performed on a procyanidin A2 model medium after 12 h at 90 °C revealed many more degradation products than those identified in fermented cocoa, including the last epimer of A2, A2 open structure intermediates (m/z 577), and oxidized A-type dimers (m/z 573).
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
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A species of Leuconostoc that occurs on fruits and vegetables and in their fermented products, as well as FERMENTED DAIRY PRODUCTS. It produces LACTIC ACID and BACTERIOCINS and is used as a PROBIOTIC; however, it has also caused infections in immunocompromised patients.
A species of Lactobacillus that occurs in the GUT MICROBIOTA of healthy humans as well as FERMENTED DAIRY PRODUCTS and fermented vegetables. It is used as a PROBIOTIC.
A non-pathogenic species of Bacillus that occurs in soil as well as some fermented vegetables and FERMENTED DAIRY PRODUCTS. It produces BACTERIOCINS and ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS and is used in FOOD PRESERVATION as well as a PROBIOTIC.
Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.