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Scanning electron microscopy backscattered-electron images of paint cross sections show the compositional contrast within the paint system. They not only give valuable information about the pigment composition and layer structure but also about the aging processes in the paint. This article focuses on the reading of backscatter images of lead white-containing samples from traditional oil paintings (17th-19th centuries). In contrast to modern lead white, traditional stack process lead white is characterized by a wide particle size distribution. Changes in particle morphology and distribution are indications of chemical/physical reactivity in the paint. Lead white can be affected by free fatty acids to form lead soaps. The dissolution of lead white can be recognized in the backscatter image by gray (less scattering) peripheries around particles and gray amorphous areas as opposed to the well-defined, highly scattering intact lead white particles. The small particles react away first, while the larger particles/lumps can still be visible. Formed lead soaps appear to migrate or diffuse through the semipermeable paint system. Lead-rich bands around particles, at layer interfaces and in the paint medium, are indications of transport. The presence of lead-containing crystals at the paint surface or inside aggregates furthermore point to the migration and mineralization of lead soaps.
FOM-Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Microscopy and microanalysis : the official journal of Microscopy Society of America, Microbeam Analysis Society, Microscopical
We report cross sections for electron-impact excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural, at intermediate incident electron energies (20, 30, and 40 eV). The present differential cross sections are m...
No reliable experimental data exist for the partial and total electron ionization cross sections for DNA bases, which are very crucial for modeling radiation damage in genetic material of living cell....
Deterioration and repair of lead paint on steel structures can result in contamination of the ambient environment but other sources of lead such as from past use of leaded paint and gasoline and indus...
Experimental and theoretical double differential cross sections (DDCSs) for electron-induced ionization of methane (CH4) are here reported for primary energies ranging from 50 eV to 350 eV and ejectio...
Recent findings on the similarity between electron and positronium scattering at the same velocity [Brawley et al., Science 330, 789 (2010)] have guided us towards the realization of a detectable flu...
The objective of this study is to image retinal vascular alterations in patients with retinal disease using the AngioVue OCT-A system and understand the information these images provide. T...
To examine the relation between complication in Repeated Cesarean Sections and Newborn Outcome compared to number of repeated cesarean section and reasonf or surgery and personal medical i...
Primary Aim: (1) To collect data to develop algorithms to distinguish between normal and abnormal dysplastic tissue. Secondary Aims: 1. To compare esophageal fluorescence ...
Hypothesis: The bacterial flora of the uterus during elective Cesarean sections differs from the uterine flora during non-elective Cesarean sections. We want to study whether the uterine f...
This clinical trial studies low- dose total skin electron therapy in treating patients with stage IB-IIIA mycosis fungoides that has not responded to previous treatment (refractory) or has...
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The technique of using a cryostat or freezing microtome, in which the temperature is regulated to -20 degrees Celsius, to cut ultrathin frozen sections for microscopic (usually, electron microscopic) examination.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...