Characteristics of associated reactions in people with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.
Summary of "Characteristics of associated reactions in people with hemiplegic cerebral palsy."
Purposes. To investigate the relationship between associated reactions and a) spasticity, b) contracture and c) coordination. Methods. Associated reactions were measured as magnitude of muscle activity in the affected limb during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction of muscles in the unaffected limb. Spasticity was measured as hyper-reflexia during passive muscle stretch, coordination as performance during a tracking task, and contracture as loss of range of motion. Chi-square analysis was used to examine the association between associated reactions and spasticity, and linear regression to examine the relationship between associated reactions and spasticity, coordination and contracture. Results. Twenty-three people with hemiplegic cerebral palsy aged from 15 to 47 years (mean [SD]: 29 years ) participated. Thirteen participants exhibited spasticity, and six participants exhibited associated reactions. Five of the six participants with associated reactions also had spasticity (chi(2) = 2.37, p = 0.12). Associated reactions were highly correlated with spasticity (r = 0.77, p = 0.001), but not with contracture (r = 0.35, p = 0.29) or coordination (r = -0.31, p = 0.30). Conclusions. Although 27% of participants exhibited associated reactions, and these were mostly small, associated reactions appear to be an expression of spasticity in hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Discipline of Physiotherapy, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Physiotherapy research international : the journal for researchers and clinicians in physical therapy
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)
A familial, cerebral arteriopathy mapped to chromosome 19q12, and characterized by the presence of granular deposits in small CEREBRAL ARTERIES producing ischemic STROKE; PSEUDOBULBAR PALSY; and multiple subcortical infarcts (CEREBRAL INFARCTION). CADASIL is an acronym for Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy. CADASIL differs from BINSWANGER DISEASE by the presence of MIGRAINE WITH AURA and usually by the lack of history of arterial HYPERTENSION. (From Bradley et al, Neurology in Clinical Practice, 2000, p1146)
Diffuse Cerebral Sclerosis Of Schilder
A rare central nervous system demyelinating condition affecting children and young adults. Pathologic findings include a large, sharply defined, asymmetric focus of myelin destruction that may involve an entire lobe or cerebral hemisphere. The clinical course tends to be progressive and includes dementia, cortical blindness, cortical deafness, spastic hemiplegia, and pseudobulbar palsy. Concentric sclerosis of Balo is differentiated from diffuse cerebral sclerosis of Schilder by the pathologic finding of alternating bands of destruction and preservation of myelin in concentric rings. Alpers' Syndrome refers to a heterogeneous group of diseases that feature progressive cerebral deterioration and liver disease. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p914; Dev Neurosci 1991;13(4-5):267-73)
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
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