Upper and Lower Extremity Motor Function and Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis.
Summary of "Upper and Lower Extremity Motor Function and Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis."
Motor impairments and cognitive dysfunction are common in multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to delineate the relationship between cognitive capacity and upper and lower motor function in 211 MS patients, and 120 healthy volunteers. Lower and upper motor function were assessed with the Timed 25 Foot Walk (T25FW) and the Nine Hole Peg Test (NHPT) as implemented in the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC). Subjects also underwent neuropsychological evaluation. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted separately for the MS and healthy groups with the T25FW and NHPT serving as the outcome measures. Cognitive performance indices served as predictors. As expected, healthy subjects performed better than the MS group on all measures. Processing speed and executive function tests were significant predictors of lower and upper motor function in both groups. Correlations were more robust in the MS group, where cognitive tests predicted variability in motor function after controlling for disease duration and physical disability. In conclusion, we find evidence of higher order cognitive control of motor function that appears to be particularly salient in this large and representative MS sample. The findings may have implications for risk assessment and treatment of mobility dysfunction in MS. (JINS, 2011, 17, 1-11).
1SUNY Buffalo School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, and the Jacobs Neurological Institute, Buffalo, New York.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21486517
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1355617711000403
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. The fibers of the musculocutaneous nerve originate in the lower cervical spinal cord (usually C5 to C7), travel via the lateral cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to the upper arm, elbow, and forearm.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
A syndrome characterized by DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, dysphonia, impairment of voluntary movements of tongue and facial muscles, and emotional lability. This condition is caused by diseases that affect the motor fibers that travel from the cerebral cortex to the lower BRAIN STEM (i.e., corticobulbar tracts); including MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
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