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Over 220 million individuals have type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) worldwide. Obesity has been identified as a significant risk factor for the development of T2DM. Overweight or obese individuals develop insulin resistance with resultant hyperinsulinemia. This process may progress to impaired glucose intolerance and eventual T2DM. There is strong evidence indicating that bariatric surgery may produce sustainable long-term weight loss in obese individuals. Bariatric surgery consists of surgical operations classified as either primarily restrictive or malabsorptive. Restrictive bariatric procedures include gastric banding or sleeve gastrectomy, while malabsorptive procedures included gastric bypass and biliopancreatic diversion. Malabsorptive procedures have been shown to be superior in producing dramatic weight loss along with resolution or improvement of T2DM. Interestingly, improvement of diabetes has been shown to occur shortly following malabsorptive bariatric surgery, prior to significant weight loss, suggesting that hormone-mediated mechanisms may be involved. As the prevalence of obesity and T2DM continues to rise, so may the role of bariatric surgery to combat this growing epidemic.
Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current diabetes reviews
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A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
A type of diabetes mellitus that is characterized by severe INSULIN RESISTANCE and LIPODYSTROPHY. The latter may be generalized, partial, acquired, or congenital (LIPODYSTROPHY, CONGENITAL GENERALIZED).
A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by excessive LIPOLYSIS, oxidation of FATTY ACIDS, production of KETONE BODIES, a sweet smell to the breath (KETOSIS;) DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.