Tetramethylpyrazine Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Vascular Leakage in Rats via the ROS-HIF-VEGF Pathway.
Summary of "Tetramethylpyrazine Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Vascular Leakage in Rats via the ROS-HIF-VEGF Pathway."
Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) antagonist that has potent properties for the treatment of a variety of vascular diseases, such as ischemic stroke and pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. However, there are few data about the role of TMP in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular leakage. This study examined the effect of TMP on hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular leakage and the underlying mechanisms. Rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (RPMVECs) treated with TMP or not were subjected to hypoxic or normoxic conditions for 24 h, and the monolayer permeability, intracellular ROS, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins levels were determined. Additionally, rats administrated TMP were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia to evaluate the effect of TMP in vivo by measuring lung water content, pulmonary vascular leakage into the lungs and immunohistochemistry for HIF-1α and VEGF. Hypoxia was found to cause a significant increase in RPMVEC monolayer permeability and intracellular ROS, HIF-1α and VEGF protein levels. Treatment with TMP decreased the hypoxia-induced RPMVEC monolayer permeability and attenuated the elevation of ROS, HIF-1α and VEGF protein levels. TMP-treated animals showed less pulmonary vascular leakage and HIF-1α and VEGF expression compared with those exposed to hypoxia alone. These observations supported that TMP inhibited the increase in pulmonary vascular permeability induced by hypoxia. The underlying mechanisms may be related to the scavenging of intracellular ROS and the suppression of hypoxia-induced upregulation of HIF-1α and VEGF proteins.
Base for Drug Clinical Trials, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
Pulmonary Veno-occlusive Disease
Pathological process resulting in the fibrous obstruction of the small- and medium-sized PULMONARY VEINS and PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. Veno-occlusion can arise from fibrous proliferation of the VASCULAR INTIMA and VASCULAR MEDIA; THROMBOSIS; or a combination of both.
Pulmonary Heart Disease
Hypertrophy and dilation of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart that is caused by PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. This condition is often associated with pulmonary parenchymal or vascular diseases, such as CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE and PULMONARY EMBOLISM.
Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
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