Emerging epidemic viral encephalitides with a special focus on henipaviruses.
Summary of "Emerging epidemic viral encephalitides with a special focus on henipaviruses."
In the last few decades, there is an increasing emergence and re-emergence of viruses, such as West Nile virus, Enterovirus 71 and henipaviruses that cause epidemic viral encephalitis and other central nervous system (CNS) manifestations. The mortality and morbidity associated with these outbreaks are significant and frequently severe. While aspects of epidemiology, basic virology, etc., may be known, the pathology and pathogenesis are often less so, partly due to a lack of interest among pathologists or because many of these infections are considered "third world" diseases. In the study of epidemic viral encephalitis, the pathologist's role in unravelling the pathology and pathogenesis is critical. The novel henipavirus infection is a good example. The newly created genus Henipavirus within the family Paramyxoviridae consists of two viruses, viz., Hendra virus and Nipah virus. These two viruses emerged in Australia and Asia, respectively, to cause severe encephalitides in humans and animals. Studies show that the pathological features of the acute encephalitis caused by henipaviruses are similar and a unique dual pathogenetic mechanism of vasculitis-induced microinfarction and parenchymal cell infection in the CNS (mainly neurons) and other organs causes severe tissue damage. Both viruses can cause relapsing encephalitis months and years after the acute infection due to a true recurrent infection as evidenced by the presence of virus in infected cells. Future emerging viral encephalitides will no doubt continue to pose considerable challenges to the neuropathologist, and as the West Nile virus outbreak demonstrates, even economically advanced nations are not spared.
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Acta neuropathologica
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20652579
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-010-0720-z
The current production of inactivated vaccines for the prevention of equine alphavirus encephalitides caused by Eastern, Western and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis viruses (EEEV, WEEV, VEEV) involves...
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is highly contagious and one of the most economically devastating diseases of cloven-hoofed animals. Scientific-based preparedness about how to best control the disease in...
To investigate the characteristics and trends of the HIV epidemic in Heilong-jiang province of China between 1993 and 2012.
The straw-coloured fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, is Africa's most widely distributed and commonly hunted fruit bat, often living in close proximity to human populations. This species has been identified...
Retroviruses exploit nuclear trafficking machinery at several distinct stages in their replication cycles. In this review, we will focus primarily on nucleocytoplasmic trafficking events that occur af...
Metabolic syndrome, labeled as the world's latest epidemic, is the force behind the global epidemic of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cardio Vascular Diseases. This emerging epidemic is an i...
The HIV integrase inhibitor, raltegravir (RAL), which was recently approved by the FDA, has been shown in several trials to be highly effective. The main study will estimate the viral load...
The long-term goal of this proposal is to understand the impact of obesity and obesity treatment on bone health during adolescence and how to preserve it. The recent pediatric obesity epid...
This study will begin to develop a culturally appropriate secondary prevention intervention for young HIV+ women through focus groups. Using three intervention sites, focus groups will gu...
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a silent killer that may go undetected for years. It is the leading cause of death with no limitation to geographic boundaries accounting to about 16.7 mil...
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Monitoring of information sources of potential value in detecting an emerging epidemic, whether naturally occurring or the result of bioterrorism.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the etiologic agent of epidemic typhus fever acquired through contact with lice (TYPHUS, EPIDEMIC LOUSE-BORNE) as well as Brill's disease.
A cardiac arrhythmia that is caused by interaction of two independently initiated cardiac impulses of different rates from two separate foci. Generally one focus is the SINOATRIAL NODE, the normal pacemaker. The ectopic focus is usually in the HEART VENTRICLE but can be in the HEART ATRIUM or the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. Modulation of the parasystolic rhythm by the sinus rhythm depends on the completeness of entrance block surrounding the parasystolic focus.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS.