Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Perinatal exposure to a synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES), causes cervicovaginal adenosis and permanent hyperplastic cornified vaginal epithelium with keratinization in mice. To investigate the mechanisms of the induction of vaginal abnormalities by DES, we have focused on activin A signaling. We have found that the βA-subunit mRNA is mainly expressed in the neonatal vaginal stroma, whereas activin A receptor type IB is localized in the neonatal vaginal epithelium. SMAD2, the intracellular signaling protein, is phosphorylated in the neonatal vagina. Cell proliferation in the vaginal epithelium grown in vitro is reduced by DES treatment or by activin signaling suppression through inhibin treatment. Thus, activin A (a homodimer of the βA-subunit) in the stroma stimulates epithelial cell proliferation in the neonatal vagina. DES treatment decreases the expression of the βA-subunit and activin receptor IIB but increases the expression of the βB-subunit and inhibin receptor. Neonatal DES treatment inhibits the phosphorylation of SMAD2 in the vaginal epithelium, indicating the inhibition of activin A signaling in the vaginal epithelium by neonatal DES treatment. Treatment with DES or inhibin, a native antagonist of activin, induces adenosis-like structures and keratinization in the vagina grown in vitro. These data suggest that the suppression of activin A signaling by DES is involved in the induction of cervicovaginal adenosis and keratinization in the neonatal mouse vaginal epithelium.
Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0027, Japan.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cell and tissue research
The Activin/Nodal/TGF-β signaling pathway plays a major role in maintaining mouse epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). The EpiSC-maintaining medium, which contains Activin A and bFGF, induces differentiatio...
While high-caloric diet impairs insulin response to cause hyperglycemia, whether and how counter-regulatory hormones are modulated by high-caloric diet is largely unknown. We find that enhanced respon...
Follicular helper T cells (TFH cells) are CD4(+) T cells specialized in helping B cells and are associated both with protective antibody responses and autoimmune diseases. The promise of targeting TFH...
NODAL/Activin signaling orchestrates key processes during embryonic development via SMAD2. How SMAD2 activates programs of gene expression that are modulated over time however, is not known. Here we d...
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Activins are members of the superfamily of transforming growth factors and have many potential neuroprotective effects. H...
This is an open label trial of mouse allergenic extract administered by subcutaneous injection in adults with asthma and mouse sensitivity. The study is designed to evaluate: - the saf...
The purpose of this study is to determine, by means of DNA and protein analysis, the relationship between DNA and protein profiles and a number of endpoints which are important for the pat...
This study is designed to assess the distribution and spread of four different vehicle formulations in the vagina. In-vivo data will be obtained regarding each vehicle formulation at vario...
The overall goal of this study is to find out about the safety of injecting the genes (DNA) for human and mouse tyrosinase in patients with melanoma. There is no evidence yet that injectio...
Asthma affects about 10% of children and 6% of adults in industrialized countries. Lymphocytes (L) Th2, a T cell population (LT) producing interleukin (IL) -4, 5 and 13 are broadly involve...
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.
One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.
Prostate cancer (cancer de prostata) Prostate cancer (cancer de prostata) is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Most prostate cancers are slow growing; however, there are cases of aggressive prostat...
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...