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Post-streptococcal acute glomerulonephritis (PSAGN) is one of the most important and intriguing conditions in the discipline of pediatric nephrology. Although the eventual outcome is excellent in most cases, PSAGN remains an important cause of acute renal failure and hospitalization for children in both developed and underdeveloped areas. The purpose of this review is to describe both the typical and less common clinical features of PSAGN, to outline the changes in the epidemiology of PSAGN over the past 50 years, and to explore studies on the pathogenesis of the condition with an emphasis on the search for the elusive nephritogenic antigen.
Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, and the Children's Foundation Research Center at Le Bonheur Children's Medical Center, Room 301 WPT, 50 North Dunlap, Memphis, TN, 38103, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
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A chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly IMMUNOGLOBULIN A in the mesangial area (GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM). Deposits of COMPLEMENT C3 and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G are also often found. Clinical features may progress from asymptomatic HEMATURIA to END-STAGE KIDNEY DISEASE.
Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots. The type of causative organism varies with age and clinical status (e.g., post-operative, immunodeficient, or post-traumatic states). Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, stiff neck, altered mentation, seizures, and focal neurologic deficits. Death may occur within 24 hours of disease onset. Pathologic features include a purulent exudate in the subarachnoid space, and diffuse inflammation of neural and vascular structures. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, pp1-5)
Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).
A fulminant and often fatal demyelinating disease of the brain which primarily affects young adults and children. Clinical features include the rapid onset of weakness, SEIZURES, and COMA. It may follow a viral illness or MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE infections but in most instances there is no precipitating event. Pathologic examination reveals marked perivascular demyelination and necrosis of white matter with microhemorrhages. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp924-5)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
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