Non-phosphorylated FTY720 Induces Apoptosis of Human Microglia by Activating SREBP2.
Summary of "Non-phosphorylated FTY720 Induces Apoptosis of Human Microglia by Activating SREBP2."
A synthetic analog of sphingosine named FTY720 (Fingolimod), phosphorylated by sphingosine kinase-2, interacts with sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors expressed on various cells. FTY720 suppresses the disease activity of multiple sclerosis (MS) chiefly by inhibiting S1P-dependent egress of autoreactive T lymphocytes from secondary lymphoid organs, and possibly by exerting anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects directly on brain cells. However, at present, biological effects of FTY720 on human microglia are largely unknown. We studied FTY720-mediated apoptosis of a human microglia cell line HMO6. The exposure of HMO6 cells to non-phosphorylated FTY720 (FTY720-non-P) induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 of 10.6 ± 2.0 μM, accompanied by the cleavage of caspase-7 and caspase-3 but not of caspase-9. The apoptosis was inhibited by Z-DQMD-FMK, a caspase-3 inhibitor, but not by Pertussis toxin, a Gi protein inhibitor, suramin, a S1P3/S1P5 inhibitor, or W123, a S1P1 competitive antagonist, although HMO6 expressed S1P1, S1P2, and S1P3. Furthermore, both phosphorylated FTY720 (FTY720-P) and SEW2871, S1P1 selective agonists, did not induce apoptosis of HMO6. Genome-wide gene expression profiling and molecular network analysis indicated activation of transcriptional regulation by sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) in FTY720-non-P-treated HMO6 cells. Western blot verified activation of SREBP2 in these cells, and apoptosis was enhanced by pretreatment with simvastatin, an activator of SREBP2, and by overexpression of the N-terminal fragment of SREBP2. These observations suggest that FTY720-non-P-induced apoptosis of HMO6 human microglia is independent of S1P receptor binding, and positively regulated by the SREBP2-dependent proapoptotic signaling pathway.
Department of Bioinformatics and Molecular Neuropathology, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, 2-522-1 Noshio, Kiyose, Tokyo, 204-8588, Japan.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cellular and molecular neurobiology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21519925
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10571-011-9698-x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Multimeric protein complexes formed in the CYTOSOL that play a role in the activation of APOPTOSIS. They can occur when MITOCHONDRIA become damaged due to cell stress and release CYTOCHROME C. Cytosolic cytochrome C associates with APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1 to form the apoptosomal protein complex. The apoptosome signals apoptosis by binding to and activating specific INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.
Apoptotic Protease-activating Factor 1
A CARD signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in the mitochondria-stimulated apoptosis (APOPTOSIS, INTRINSIC PATHWAY). It binds to CYTOCHROME C in the CYTOSOL to form an APOPTOSOMAL PROTEIN COMPLEX and activates INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
A long pro-domain caspase that contains a caspase recruitment domain in its pro-domain region. Caspase 9 is activated during cell stress by mitochondria-derived proapoptotic factors and by CARD SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1. It activates APOPTOSIS by cleaving and activating EFFECTOR CASPASES.
Oncogene Protein V-cbl
An oncoprotein from the Cas NS-1 murine retrovirus that induces pre- B-CELL LYMPHOMA and MYELOID LEUKEMIAS. v-cbl protein is a tyrosine-phosphorylated, truncated form of its cellular homologue, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CBL.
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