Follow-up Sonographic Results for Graf Type 2a Hips: Association With Risk Factors for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip and Instability.
Summary of "Follow-up Sonographic Results for Graf Type 2a Hips: Association With Risk Factors for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip and Instability."
Objectives- The purpose of the study was to evaluate the association of sonographic worsening in type 2a hips with risk factors of developmental dysplasia of the hip, stability of the hip, and initial sonographic findings. Methods- Among infants who were referred for hip sonography between 2007 and 2009, 3450 were included in this study. Sonographic examinations were performed by combining the static Graf technique and the dynamic Harcke technique. The rate of sonographic worsening in type 2a hips and the relationship between sonographic worsening and risk factors for developmental dysplasia, instability of the hip, lateralization (right or left) of immaturity, and the presence of unilateral and bilateral immature hips were evaluated. Results- Type 2a hips were observed in 529 infants (15.3%; 780 hips [11.3%]). Of these, in 36 cases (6.8%; 44 hips [5.6%]), the sonographic results worsened. Twenty-five of these 36 cases (32 of 44 hips) were diagnosed as type 2 b; in others, the dysplasia worsened, and 6 cases (7 hips) were classified as type 2 c, 3 cases (3 hips) as type D, and 2 cases (2 hips) as type 3. Instability, unilateral type 2a hips, and associated central nervous system anomalies were found to be independent predictors of sonographic worsening in type 2a hips. Conclusions- Type 2a hips may worsen sonographically at a rate of 5.6%; hence, sonographic follow-up is needed. Instability, central nervous system anomalies, and unilateral type 2a hips were found to be independent predictors of sonographic worsening. Our study shows that cases with these risk factors should be followed more carefully.
Sağlik Bakanliği Ankara Eğitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Radyoloji Bölümü, 06590 Ulucanlar, Ankara, Turkey., email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A malpresentation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR with the fetal cephalic pole in the fundus of the UTERUS. There are three types of breech: the complete breech with flexed hips and knees; the incomplete breech with one or both hips partially or fully extended; the frank breech with flexed hips and extended knees.
Lost To Follow-up
Study subjects in COHORT STUDIES whose outcomes are unknown e.g., because they could not or did not wish to attend follow-up visits.(from Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed.)
The joining of RNA from two different genes. One type of trans-splicing is the "spliced leader" type (primarily found in protozoans such as trypanosomes and in lower invertebrates such as nematodes) which results in the addition of a capped, noncoding, spliced leader sequence to the 5' end of mRNAs. Another type of trans-splicing is the "discontinuous group II introns" type (found in plant/algal chloroplasts and plant mitochondria) which results in the joining of two independently transcribed coding sequences. Both are mechanistically similar to conventional nuclear pre-mRNA cis-splicing. Mammalian cells are also capable of trans-splicing.
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Mineralocorticoid Excess Syndrome, Apparent
A hereditary disease characterized by childhood onset HYPERTENSION, hypokalemic alkalosis, and low RENIN and ALDOSTERONE secretion. It results from a defect in the activity of the 11-BETA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE TYPE 2 enzyme which results in inadequate conversion of CORTISOL to CORTISONE. The build up of unprocessed cortisol to levels that stimulate MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTORS creates the appearance of having excessive MINERALOCORTICOIDS.
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