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Degeneration of basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic nuclei is associated with cognitive decline, and this effect is believed to be mediated by neuronal dysfunction in the denervated cortical areas. MRI-b...
The basal forebrain cholinergic system is involved in cognitive processes that require an attentive state, an increased level of arousal, and/ or cortical activation associated with low amplitude fast...
Although the role of hemispheric laterality in freezing of gait (FOG) remains a topic of debate, important new evidence has suggested that individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) who experience free...
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative disorder where the distribution of pathology throughout the brain is not random but follows a predictive pattern used for pathological staging. While the inv...
The retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is one of the largest cortical areas in rodents, and is subdivided in two main regions, A29 and A30, according to their cytoarchitectural organization and connectivities...
Neuronal activity in circuits between the basal ganglia (BG) and motor cortical areas is abnormally synchronised and rhythmic. The oscillatory activity prevails at 8-30 Hz in untreated Par...
Neuronal activity in circuits between the basal ganglia (BG) and motor cortical areas is abnormally synchronized and rhythmic. The oscillatory activity prevails at 8-30 Hz in untreated Par...
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive subcortical and cortical neuronal degeneration. AD patients differ in the time course of neuronal degeneration and accompanying cog...
Basal ganglia are involved in the control of motor, cognitive and emotional behaviours. The aim of this study is to precisely evaluate patients with basal ganglia focal lesions both with o...
The primary objective of this study is to determine if NAC, added to existing antipsychotic treatment, is superior to placebo for cortical erosion in patients with early stage psychosis. T...
A nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Mecamylamine has been used as a ganglionic blocker in treating hypertension, but, like most ganglionic blockers, is more often used now as a research tool.
Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
A syndrome complex composed of three conditions which represent clinical variants of the same disease process: STRIATONIGRAL DEGENERATION; SHY-DRAGER SYNDROME; and the sporadic form of OLIVOPONTOCEREBELLAR ATROPHIES. Clinical features include autonomic, cerebellar, and basal ganglia dysfunction. Pathologic examination reveals atrophy of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, pons, and medulla, with prominent loss of autonomic neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1076; Baillieres Clin Neurol 1997 Apr;6(1):187-204; Med Clin North Am 1999 Mar;83(2):381-92)
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.
A group of nerve cells in the substantia innominata that has wide projections to the neocortex and is rich in acetylcholine and choline acetyltransferase. In Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases the nucleus undergoes degeneration.