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Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons constitute a way station for many ascending and descending pathways. These cholinergic neurons have a role in eliciting cortical activation and arousal. It is well ...
Motor tics are a cardinal feature of Tourette syndrome and are traditionally associated with an excess of striatal dopamine in the basal ganglia. Recent evidence increasingly supports a more articulat...
Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons influence cortical state, plasticity, learning, and attention. They collectively innervate the entire cerebral cortex, differentially controlling acetylcholine effl...
Cholinergic (ACh) basal forebrain (BF) neurons are active during wakefulness and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and are involved in sleep homeostasis. We have previously shown in adult animals that co...
The basal body shares similar architecture with centrioles in animals and is involved in nucleating flagellar axonemal microtubules in flagellated eukaryotes. The early-branching Trypanosoma brucei po...
Neuronal activity in circuits between the basal ganglia (BG) and motor cortical areas is abnormally synchronised and rhythmic. The oscillatory activity prevails at 8-30 Hz in untreated Par...
Neuronal activity in circuits between the basal ganglia (BG) and motor cortical areas is abnormally synchronized and rhythmic. The oscillatory activity prevails at 8-30 Hz in untreated Par...
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common heart rhythm disorder which can significantly affect a patient's quality of life. Abnormal electrical activity from the 4 veins that drain into the le...
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive subcortical and cortical neuronal degeneration. AD patients differ in the time course of neuronal degeneration and accompanying cog...
Post mastectomy pain syndrome result from surgical damage to the intercostobrachial nerve, the lateral cutaneous branch of the second intercostal nerve that is often resected at mastectomy...
Cortical malformations secondary to abnormal cortical maturation after CELL MIGRATION in NEUROGENESIS. This group includes injury to the cortex during later stages of cortical development such as POLYMICROGYRIA and focal cortical dysplasias.
A nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Mecamylamine has been used as a ganglionic blocker in treating hypertension, but, like most ganglionic blockers, is more often used now as a research tool.
Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
Cortical malformations secondary to abnormal neuronal and glial CELL PROLIFERATION or APOPTOSIS in NEUROGENESIS. This group includes congenital MICROCEPHALIES; MICROLISSENCEPHALIES, megalencephalies, HEMIMEGALENCEPHALIES and cortical dysplasias with balloon cells.
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.