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Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons constitute a way station for many ascending and descending pathways. These cholinergic neurons have a role in eliciting cortical activation and arousal. It is well ...
Cortical expansion and folding are often linked to the evolution of higher intelligence, but molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying cortical folding remain poorly understood. The hominoid-specif...
Motor tics are a cardinal feature of Tourette syndrome and are traditionally associated with an excess of striatal dopamine in the basal ganglia. Recent evidence increasingly supports a more articulat...
Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons influence cortical state, plasticity, learning, and attention. They collectively innervate the entire cerebral cortex, differentially controlling acetylcholine effl...
Cerebrovascular lesions are rare in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), in contrast to other neurodegenerative diseases. Cortical microbleeds (CoMBs) are frequent in Alzheimer's disease, in part...
Neuronal activity in circuits between the basal ganglia (BG) and motor cortical areas is abnormally synchronised and rhythmic. The oscillatory activity prevails at 8-30 Hz in untreated Par...
Neuronal activity in circuits between the basal ganglia (BG) and motor cortical areas is abnormally synchronized and rhythmic. The oscillatory activity prevails at 8-30 Hz in untreated Par...
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common heart rhythm disorder which can significantly affect a patient's quality of life. Abnormal electrical activity from the 4 veins that drain into the le...
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive subcortical and cortical neuronal degeneration. AD patients differ in the time course of neuronal degeneration and accompanying cog...
Basal ganglia are involved in the control of motor, cognitive and emotional behaviours. The aim of this study is to precisely evaluate patients with basal ganglia focal lesions both with o...
A nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Mecamylamine has been used as a ganglionic blocker in treating hypertension, but, like most ganglionic blockers, is more often used now as a research tool.
Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
A syndrome complex composed of three conditions which represent clinical variants of the same disease process: STRIATONIGRAL DEGENERATION; SHY-DRAGER SYNDROME; and the sporadic form of OLIVOPONTOCEREBELLAR ATROPHIES. Clinical features include autonomic, cerebellar, and basal ganglia dysfunction. Pathologic examination reveals atrophy of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, pons, and medulla, with prominent loss of autonomic neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1076; Baillieres Clin Neurol 1997 Apr;6(1):187-204; Med Clin North Am 1999 Mar;83(2):381-92)
A group of nerve cells in the substantia innominata that has wide projections to the neocortex and is rich in acetylcholine and choline acetyltransferase. In Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases the nucleus undergoes degeneration.
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.