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Cerebellar atrophy in a child with hereditary methemoglobinemia type II.

08:18 EDT 19th April 2014 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Cerebellar atrophy in a child with hereditary methemoglobinemia type II."

We report the first case of a child with recessive hereditary methemoglobinemia type II with demonstrated cerebellar atrophy. This very rare blood disorder results in mild cyanosis, profound mental and motor impairment, and movement disorders in infancy and childhood. We suggest that children with unexplained severe encephalopathy and cerebellar atrophy should also be tested for hereditary methemoglobinemia type II.


Child Neurology Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Viale Risorgimento, 80, 42100 Reggio Emilia, Italy.

Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Brain & development
ISSN: 1872-7131


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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Hereditary conditions that feature progressive visual loss in association with optic atrophy. Relatively common forms include autosomal dominant optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT) and Leber hereditary optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, HEREDITARY, LEBER).

A group of congenital malformations involving the brainstem, cerebellum, upper spinal cord, and surrounding bony structures. Type II is the most common, and features compression of the medulla and cerebellar tonsils into the upper cervical spinal canal and an associated MENINGOMYELOCELE. Type I features similar, but less severe malformations and is without an associated meningomyelocele. Type III has the features of type II with an additional herniation of the entire cerebellum through the bony defect involving the foramen magnum, forming an ENCEPHALOCELE. Type IV is a form a cerebellar hypoplasia. Clinical manifestations of types I-III include TORTICOLLIS; opisthotonus; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS; APNEA; NYSTAGMUS, CONGENITAL; swallowing difficulties; and ATAXIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p261; Davis, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp236-46)

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Cerebellar degeneration associated with a remote neoplasm. Clinical manifestations include progressive limb and GAIT ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; and NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC. The histologic type of the associated neoplasm is usually carcinoma or lymphoma. Pathologically the cerebellar cortex and subcortical nuclei demonstrate diffuse degenerative changes. Anti-Purkinje cell antibodies (anti-Yo) are found in the serum of approximately 50% of affected individuals. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p686)

A group of disorders marked by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord resulting in weakness and muscular atrophy, usually without evidence of injury to the corticospinal tracts. Diseases in this category include Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and later onset SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD, most of which are hereditary. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)

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