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High expression of CXCR5 is one of the defining hallmarks of T follicular helper cells (T(FH)), a CD4 Th cell subset that promotes germinal center reactions and the selection and affinity maturation of B cells. CXCR5 is also expressed on 20-25% of peripheral blood human central memory CD4 T cells (T(CM)), although the definitive function of these cells is not fully understood. The constitutive expression of CXCR5 on T(FH) cells and a fraction of circulating T(CM) suggests that CXCR5(+) T(CM) may represent a specialized subset of memory-type T(FH) cells programmed for homing to follicles and providing B cell help. To verify this assumption, we analyzed this cell population and show its specialized function in supporting humoral immune responses. Compared with their CXCR5(-) T(CM) counterparts, CXCR5(+) T(CM) expressed high levels of the chemokine CXCL13 and efficiently induced plasma cell differentiation and Ig secretion. We found that the distinct B cell helper qualities of CXCR5(+) T(CM) were mainly due to high ICOS expression and pronounced responsiveness to ICOS ligand costimulation together with large IL-10 secretion. Furthermore, B cell helper attributes of CXCR5(+) T(CM) were almost exclusively acquired on cognate interaction with B cells, but not with dendritic cells. This implies that a preferential recruitment of circulating CXCR5(+) T(CM) to CXCL13-rich B cell follicles is required for the promotion of a quick and efficient protective secondary humoral immune response. Taken together, we propose that CXCR5(+) T(CM) represent a distinct memory cell subset specialized in supporting Ab-mediated immune responses.
Immunology Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia;
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
During chronic viral infection, virus-specific CD8(+) T cells become exhausted, exhibit poor effector function and lose memory potential(1-4). Nevertheless, exhausted CD8(+) T cells can still contain ...
Chronic infections promote the terminal differentiation (or "exhaustion") of T cells and are thought to preclude the formation of memory T cells. In contrast, we discovered a small subpopulation of...
T follicular helper cells (Tfh) provide help to B cells to support their activation, expansion and differentiation. However, the role of Tfh cells in chronic HBV infection is poorly defined. The aim o...
During unresolved infections, some viruses escape immunological control and establish a persistant reservoir in certain cell types, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which persists in follic...
Despite the potential for diversity in their T cell receptor, γδ T cells are primarily considered to be innate immune cells. Recently, memory-like γδ T cell responses have been identified in murin...
This phase I trial studies the highest possible dose of central memory enriched T cells that can be given following standard stem cell transplant before unmanageable side effects are seen ...
The purpose of this study is to learn the safety and cancer-fighting effects of using IL-2 with the vaccines ("shots") made for you.
This phase I/II trial studies the side effects of laboratory-treated (central memory/naive) cluster of differentiation 8+ T cells (autologous Wilms tumor [WT]1-T cell receptor [TCRc]4 gene...
This study investigates the use of the patients own immune cells to treat prostate cancer. Cells are taken from the patient and grown in the laboratory to become specialized immune cells c...
Analyse the transcriptomic signature of anti vaccinia memory B cells at a short time after vaccination as compared to the signature already established in long-lived memory B cells.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
Cytokines include chemokines, lymphokines, and monokines. Cells of the immune system communicate with one another by releasing and responding to chemical messengers called cytokines. These proteins are secreted by immune cells and act on other cells to...
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...