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High expression of CXCR5 is one of the defining hallmarks of T follicular helper cells (T(FH)), a CD4 Th cell subset that promotes germinal center reactions and the selection and affinity maturation of B cells. CXCR5 is also expressed on 20-25% of peripheral blood human central memory CD4 T cells (T(CM)), although the definitive function of these cells is not fully understood. The constitutive expression of CXCR5 on T(FH) cells and a fraction of circulating T(CM) suggests that CXCR5(+) T(CM) may represent a specialized subset of memory-type T(FH) cells programmed for homing to follicles and providing B cell help. To verify this assumption, we analyzed this cell population and show its specialized function in supporting humoral immune responses. Compared with their CXCR5(-) T(CM) counterparts, CXCR5(+) T(CM) expressed high levels of the chemokine CXCL13 and efficiently induced plasma cell differentiation and Ig secretion. We found that the distinct B cell helper qualities of CXCR5(+) T(CM) were mainly due to high ICOS expression and pronounced responsiveness to ICOS ligand costimulation together with large IL-10 secretion. Furthermore, B cell helper attributes of CXCR5(+) T(CM) were almost exclusively acquired on cognate interaction with B cells, but not with dendritic cells. This implies that a preferential recruitment of circulating CXCR5(+) T(CM) to CXCL13-rich B cell follicles is required for the promotion of a quick and efficient protective secondary humoral immune response. Taken together, we propose that CXCR5(+) T(CM) represent a distinct memory cell subset specialized in supporting Ab-mediated immune responses.
Immunology Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia;
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
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CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Neurons in the ENTORHINAL CORTEX that project to the HIPPOCAMPUS. Grid cells and PLACE CELLS play a role in cognitive representation of spatial memory and navigation.
Neurological process involving the conversion of learned information into long-term memory.
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