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Despite large-scale efforts devoted to the conduct of clinical trials in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), no new therapy has been approved for treatment of this disease in more than 50 years. Increased understanding of the immunologic mechanisms underlying SLE has led to the development of a variety of biologic agents that target specific aspects of the adaptive and innate arms of the immune system, including B cells, T cells, dendritic cells, and various cytokines. One of these agents, belimumab, was the subject of two positive phase 3 trials in nonrenal lupus that have given us hope that a new therapy for SLE may be finally within our grasp. In addition to these newer therapies, recent studies of standard-of-care medications such as mycophenolate mofetil and hydroxychloroquine have better defined the efficacy and safety of these agents for the treatment of lupus nephritis and nonrenal lupus. This article provides a discussion of several novel biologic agents at different stages of development for the treatment of SLE, as well as an analysis of newer data on agents that have been used in the treatment of SLE for many years.
University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current rheumatology reports
To assess the efficacy and safety of anifrolumab, a type I interferon (IFN) receptor antagonist, in a phase IIb, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of adults with moderate-to-severe sy...
Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that affects many systems, including the skin, musculoskeletal, renal, neuropsychiatric, hematologic, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and reproductive ...
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disabling and deadly disease. Development of novel therapies for SLE has historically been limited by incomplete understanding of immune dysregulation. Recent a...
Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most severe manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), affecting ∼50% of patients, and both renal disease and treatment-related toxicity contribute to s...
To characterize the inflammatory profiles of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving standard treatment compared to healthy controls.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ILT-101 (human recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2)) in patients with moderate to severe systemic lupus erythematosus.
This is a multicenter, Phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-ranging study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of GDC-0853 in combination with standa...
The primary objective of the study is to confirm the clinical efficacy of epratuzumab in the treatment of subjects with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
Interferon alpha (IFNa) is involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)and IFNa levels are associated with the severity of the disease. Blocking IFNa could be an attr...
This is a Phase III, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, parallel-group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ocrelizumab compared to placebo when combined wi...
A form of lupus erythematosus in which the skin may be the only organ involved or in which skin involvement precedes the spread into other body systems. It has been classified into three forms - acute (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC with skin lesions), subacute, and chronic (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, DISCOID).
A type of lupus erythematosus characterized by deep dermal or subcutaneous nodules, most often on the head, face, or upper arms. It is generally chronic and occurs most often in women between the ages of 20 and 45.
A chronic form of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, CUTANEOUS) in which the skin lesions mimic those of the systemic form but in which systemic signs are rare. It is characterized by the presence of discoid skin plaques showing varying degrees of edema, erythema, scaliness, follicular plugging, and skin atrophy. Lesions are surrounded by an elevated erythematous border. The condition typically involves the face and scalp, but widespread dissemination may occur.
Antiphospholipid antibodies found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. The antibodies are detected by solid-phase IMMUNOASSAY employing the purified phospholipid antigen CARDIOLIPIN.
An antiphospholipid antibody found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. In vitro, the antibody interferes with the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin and prolongs the partial thromboplastin time. In vivo, it exerts a procoagulant effect resulting in thrombosis mainly in the larger veins and arteries. It further causes obstetrical complications, including fetal death and spontaneous abortion, as well as a variety of hematologic and neurologic complications.
Arthritis Fibromyalgia Gout Lupus Rheumatic Rheumatology is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and management of disease involving joints, tendons, muscles, ligaments and associated structures (Oxford Medical Diction...
Lupus is a complex and poorly understood condition that affects many parts of the body and causes symptoms ranging from mild to life-threatening. There are several types of lupus. The main types are: discoid lupus erythematosus drug-induced lu...
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...