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Although treatment options for men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) have improved with the recent and anticipated approvals of novel immunotherapeutic, hormonal, chemotherapeutic and bone-targeted agents, clinical benefit with these systemic therapies is transient and survival times remain unacceptably short. Thus, we devote the second section of this two-part review to discussing emerging therapeutic paradigms and research strategies that are entering phase II and III clinical testing for men with metastatic CRPC. We will discuss a range of emerging hormonal, immunomodulatory, antiangiogenic, epigenetic and cell survival pathway inhibitors in current clinical trials, with an emphasis on how these therapies may complement our existing treatment options.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases advance online publication, 17 May 2011; doi:10.1038/pcan.2011.24.
Prostate Cancer Research Program, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases
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Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).
Proteins secreted by the prostate gland. The major secretory proteins from the human prostate gland include PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, prostate-specific membrane antigen, and prostate-specific protein-94.
A synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE. Goserelin is used in treatments of malignant NEOPLASMS of the prostate, uterine fibromas, and metastatic breast cancer.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
A culture-specific acute delusional syndrome occurring mostly in the Malay people and Southern Chinese. The syndrome is characterized by the individual's sudden experience of depersonalization depicted by the belief that his penis is shrinking into his abdomen and that he will die when this occurs. Although generally classified as a culture-specific syndrome, koro may be no more than a variant of castration anxiety (ANXIETY, CASTRATION) as it has been described in non-Asian patients.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Erectile Dysfunction Urology Urology is the branch of medicine concerned with the urinary tract and diseases that affect it. Examples include urethritis, urethrostenosis and incontinence. Urology is a su...
Osteoporosis is a disease in which the bones become extremely porous, are subject to fracture, and heal slowly, occurring especially in women following menopause and often leading to curvature of the spine from vertebral collapse. Follow and track&n...