Polycythemia due to obstructive sleep apnea in a patient on hemodialysis.
Summary of "Polycythemia due to obstructive sleep apnea in a patient on hemodialysis."
Abstract Both anemia and sleep disordered breathing are common in patients with dialysis-dependent stage 5 chronic kidney disease. Erythrocytosis resulting from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is rare in the general population and has never been described in the hemodialysis population. We present a case of asymptomatic isolated erythrocytosis and elevated serum erythropoietin level in an otherwise well and previously erythropoietin-dependent chronic hemodialysis patient with chronic kidney disease secondary to ischemic nephropathy. There was no history or symptoms of cardio-pulmonary or hepatic diseases nor any relevant family history. Screening work-up for malignancies was negative. The clinical history was highly suggestive of OSA and severe OSA (respiratory disturbance index of 59) was confirmed by polysomnographic studies. Successful treatment of the OSA with continuous positive airway pressure resulted in permanent stabilization of the hemoglobin to levels below 13 g/dL without the need for repeated phlebotomies and in dramatic lowering of serum erythropoietin levels. To our knowledge, this is the first case of OSA mediated erythrocytosis in a dialysis patient documented in the literature.
Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Hemodialysis international. International Symposium on Home Hemodialysis
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20649679
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1542-4758.2010.00461.x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Sleep Apnea, Central
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)
Sleep Apnea Syndromes
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome
HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
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